Comparative Analysis of Some Trace Element Contents of Staple Cereals Grown in Plateau State, North-central Nigeria
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 129-133
Received: Feb. 29, 2016; Accepted: Mar. 11, 2016; Published: Mar. 24, 2016
Views 4225      Downloads 98
Authors
Kiri Hashimu Jaryum, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Samuel Yusufu Gazuwa, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Olukemi Dayok, Department of Science Laboratory Technology, Plateau State Polytechnic, Barkin Ladi, Nigeria
Justina Ononye Onyeka, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medical Sciences, University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Cereals account for more than half of the staple foods of the population in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Elemental composition of foodstuffs varies according to genetic and environmental factors, with environment playing a greater role for the crop type. In this study, four trace elements were determined in four staple cereal foodstuffs consumed in North-Central Nigeria with a view to comparing them. The cereals studied were Oryza sativa (rice), Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (guinea corn) and Eleusine coracana (finger millet). Mineral concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. Data obtained were statistically analysed by the Student’s t-test. Guinea corn has the highest elemental composition with zinc been the most abundant of the elements, occurring at 0.3690±0.0007 mg/100g; followed by millet with Fe occurring at 0.2740±0.0004mg/100g. Copper was the least abundant trace element found in the cereals; occurring at 0.0006±0.0002mg/100g in millet, followed by 0.0012±0.0001mg/100g in rice. Moreover, it was discovered that the levels of trace elements in all the cereals (except Zn in guinea corn) studied were lower than the FAO/WHO dietary requirements; the estimated average requirement, EAR; and also the recommended daily allowance, RDA. It was concluded that the studied population might be at risk of deficiencies of these elements.
Keywords
Nutritional Deficiencies, Cereals, Copper, Zinc, Rural Areas
To cite this article
Kiri Hashimu Jaryum, Samuel Yusufu Gazuwa, Olukemi Dayok, Justina Ononye Onyeka, Comparative Analysis of Some Trace Element Contents of Staple Cereals Grown in Plateau State, North-central Nigeria, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 2, 2016, pp. 129-133. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20160502.16
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Alloway, B. J. (2009). Soil factors associated with Zn deficiency in crops and humans. Environ. Geochem. Health 31:535–548. doi: 10.1007/s10653-009-9255-4.
[2]
Teklic, T., Loncaric, Z., Kovacevic, V. and Singh, B. R. (2013). Metallic trace elements in cereal grain – a review: how much metal do we eat? Food and Energy Security published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. and the Association of Applied Biologists. DOI: 10.1002/fes3.24.
[3]
Reynolds M., Bonnett D., Chapman S. C., Furbank R. T., Manes Y., Mather D.E., Parry M.A.J. (2011). Raising yield potential of wheat. I. Overview of a consortium approach and breeding strategies. J. Exp. Bot. 62:439–452.
[4]
FAO (2012). Crop prospects and food situation. 4:40. Available at http://www.fao.org/giews/english/cpfs/index.htm (accessed February 20, 2013).
[5]
Dar, W. D. (2004). Macro-benefits from micronutrients for grey to green revolution in agriculture, IFA International Symposium on Micronutrients, 23-25 February 2004, New Delhi, India.
[6]
Buerkert, A., Moser, M., Kumar, A. K., Fürst, P., Becker, K. (2001). Variation in grain quality of pearl millet from Sahelian West Africa, Field Crops Research 69: 1-11.
[7]
Khush, G. S. (2001) Challenges for meeting the global food and nutrient needs in the new millennium, Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 15-26.
[8]
Cakmak I. (2002). Plant nutrition research: Priorities to meet human needs for food in sustainable ways, Plant and Soil 247: 3-24.
[9]
Kennedy, G. and Burlinghame, B. (2003). Analysis of food composition data on rice from a plant genetic resources perspective, Food Chemistry 80: 589-596.
[10]
Moslehuddin, A. Z. M., Laizoo, S. and Egashira, K. (1997). Fertility status of Bangladesh soils – A review, Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University 41: 257-267.
[11]
Neue, H. U., Quijano, C., Senadhira, D. and Setter, T. (1998). Strategies for dealing with micro-nutrient disorders and salinity in lowland rice systems, Field Crops Research, 56: 139-155.
[12]
Savithri, P., Perumal, R. and Nagarajan, R. (1999) Soil and crop management technologies for enhancing rice production under micronutrient constraints, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 53: 83-92.
[13]
Mayer, A-M. B., Latham, M. C., Duxbury, J. M., Frongillo, E.A., Hassan, N. and Biswas, T. (2003). The zinc content of rice in Bangladesh: relationship to soil, production methods, diets and the zinc status of children, FASEB Journal 17: A1200-1200 Part 2 Suppl. S.
[14]
Cakmak, I., R. D. Graham, and R. M. Welch. 2002. Agricultural and molecular genetic approaches to improving nutrition and preventing micronutrient malnutrition globally in R. M. Welch and I. Cakmak, eds. Impacts of agriculture on human health and nutrition. Vol. 1. Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), Developed under the Auspices of the UNESCO. Eolss Publishers, Oxford, U.K. Available at http://www.eolss.net (accessed February 12, 2013).
[15]
White, P. J., M. R. Broadley, and P. J. Gregory. (2012). Managing the nutrition of plants and people. App. Env. Soil Sci. 53:2176–2180. Article ID 104826. doi: 10.1155/2012/104826.
[16]
Halvin, J. L. and Soltanpour, P. N. (1980). A nitric acid plant tissue digestion method with ICP spectrometry for contaminated soil and plant. Anaytical. Chemistry, 11: 969-980.
[17]
Waters, B. M., and R. P. Sankaran. (2011). Moving micronutrients from the soil to the seeds: genes and physiological processes from a biofortification perspective. Plant Sci. 180:562–574. doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.12.003.
[18]
Puig, S., and L. Peñarrubia. (2009). Placing micronutrients in context: transport and distribution in plants. Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. 12: 299–306. doi: 10.1016/j.pbi.2009.04.008.
[19]
McLaughlin, M. J., D. R. Parker, and J. M. Clarke. 1999. Metals and micronutrients – food safety issues. Field Crops Res. 60: 143–163.
[20]
Heinemann, R. J. B., P. L. Fagundes, E. A. Pinto, M. V. C. Penteado, and U. M. Lanfer-Marquez. (2005). Comparative study of nutrient composition of commercial brown, parboiled and milled rice from Brazil. J. Food Compos. Anal. 18: 287–296. doi: 10.1016/j.jfca.2004.07.005.
[21]
Nuss, E. T., and S. A. Tanumihardjo. (2010). Maize: a paramount staple crop in the context of global nutrition. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 9: 417–436. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00117.x.
[22]
Yang, X.-E., Z.-Q. Ye, C.-H. Shi, and H. Graham. (1998). Genotypic differences in concentration of Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn in rice grain. J. Plant Nutr. 21:1453–1463.
[23]
Gregorio, G. B., D. Senadhira, H. Htut, and R. D. Graham. (2000). Breeding for trace mineral density in rice. Food Nutr. Bull. 21:382–386.
[24]
Nube, M. and Voortman, R. L. (2006). Simultaneously addressing micronutrient deficiencies in soils, crops, animals and human nutrition: opportunities for higher yields and better health. Centre for World Food Studies, Amsterdam.
[25]
Maziya-Dixon, B., Akinyele, I. O., Oguntona, E. B., Nokoe, S., Sanusi, R. A. and Harris, E. (2004). Nigerian Food Consumption and Nutrition Survey 2001–2003, Summary. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria. Retrieved 6 July 2007 from: /http://www.iita.org/cms/details/NFC.pdfS
[26]
United States Department of Agriculture, USDA, 2011. Agricultural Research Services, USDA Nutrient Data. Laboratory. 2011. USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 24.: http://www.ars.usda.gov/nutrientdata.
[27]
Jaryum, K. H., Longdet, I. Y., Gazuwa, S. Y. and Clement, E. (2014).Trace Elements Profile of Some Legumes Consumed In Plateau State, Nigeria; International Journal of Biological Sciences, 1:6, 56-65. http://www.dnetrw.com
[28]
Jaryum, K. H., Okoye, Z. S. C. and Stoecker, B. (2013). Copper content of staple seeds and grains grown in Kanam local government area, Nigeria; Springer Plus, 2: 373–377. http://www.springerplus.com/content/2/1/373
[29]
Kanatti, A., Rai, K. N., Radhika, K. Govindaraj, M., Sahrawat, K. L. and Rao, A. S. (2014). Grain iron and zinc density in pearl millet: combining ability, heterosis and association with grain yield and grain size. Springer Plus 3:763 doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-763
[30]
Rengel, Z., Batten, G. D., Crowley, D. E. 1999 Agronomic approaches for improving the micronutrient density in edible portions of field crops, Field Crops Research 60: 27-40.
[31]
Janusauskaite, Dalia; Arlauskiene, Ausra and Maiksteniene, Stanislava 2013. Soil mineral nitrogen and microbial parameters as influenced by catch crops and straw management Zemdirbyste Agriculture, 100(1): 9–18.
[32]
Kitata RB, Chandravanshi BS (2012) Concentration levels of major and trace metals in onion (Allium cepa L.) and irrigation water around Meki Town and Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. Bull Chem Soc Ethiop 26: 27–42
[33]
Marschner, H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher Plants, Academic Press, London.
[34]
FAO/WHO (2001) Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements, report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation.
[35]
Food and Nutrition Board, FNB, (2001) of the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. National Academy Press: Washington DC.
[36]
Merchant, S. S. (2010). The elements of plant micronutrients. Plant Physiol. 154: 512–515. doi: 10.1104/pp.110.161810.
[37]
Sanghvi T VAM, Baker J, Fiedler J. (2007). In: Sanghvi T, Van Ameringen M, Baker J, Fiedler J, editors. Vitamin and mineral deficiencies technical situation analysis: a report for the ten year strategy for the reduction of vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Tokyo: United Nations University Press; p. S157–219, especially S159, 160, 188, 189, 214.
[38]
Klevay LM. (2011). Is the Western diet adequate in copper? Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology; 25: 204–212. www.elsevier.de/jtemb
[39]
Klevay LM. (2006). Heart failure improvement from a supplement containing copper. Eur Heart J; 27: 117.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186