Proximate Compositions, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Gari Fortified with Soybean, Melon Seed and Moringa Seed Flours
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2017, Pages: 105-110
Received: Oct. 29, 2016;
Accepted: Dec. 14, 2016;
Published: Mar. 4, 2017
Views 1549 Downloads 60
Alozie Yetunde Ezinwanyi, Department of Home Economics, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Ekerette Nkereuwem Ndaeyo, Department of Home Economics, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Gari was fortified with soybean, melon seed and moringa seed flours at 5% substitution level to produce Soy gari, Melon seed gari and Moringa seed gari respectively. A control sample, 100% cassava gari was also produced. Samples were analyzed for proximate compositions, physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics using standard procedures. Results revealed that, fortification significantly decreased moisture (9.12±0.017% in Control to 8.14±0.04% in Soy gari) and fibre (2.73±0.04% in Control to 2.11±0.02% in Melon seed gari) in all samples except in Moringa seed gari. Protein (1.52±0.05% in Control to 7.22±0.04% in Soy gari), fat (6.34±0.29% in Control to 10.74±0.19% in Melon seed gari) and ash (1.55±0.03% in Control to 2.47±0.61% in Melon seed gari) contents were increased, while carbohydrate contents were decreased (78.74±0.242% in Control to 71.02±0.512% in Soy gari), in all samples. For pasting properties, Moringa seed gari performed best in peak viscosity (2374.50 RVU), trough (1862.50 RVU) but poorly in breakdown viscosity (512.00 RVU); while the Control scored best in final viscosity (3018.50 RVU). Swelling index ranged from 2.43±0.05 in Soy gari to 4.82±0.02% in Control. Water holding capacity ranged from 19.22±0.03% in Soy gari to 24.34±0.05 in the Control. Control sample performed best in all sensory properties except in overall acceptability, where Melon seed gari scored the best. Moringa seed gari scored significantly lower than others in colour, taste, and acceptability but had similar rating in aroma to Soy gari. Gari fortified with soy beans, melon seed and moringa seed flours are of improved nutritive values, physicochemical and sensory properties than ordinary gari. Fortification of this product can thus present a viable and sustainable means of tackling nutrient deficiencies, particularly protein energy malnutrition in populations.
Alozie Yetunde Ezinwanyi,
Ekerette Nkereuwem Ndaeyo,
Proximate Compositions, Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Gari Fortified with Soybean, Melon Seed and Moringa Seed Flours, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2017, pp. 105-110.
Sanni, L. O. (2005). Food Safety, Weights, Measures, and Consumption Patterns: The Case of Gari in Enugu and Benin Markets. Onne, Nigeria: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
Fabiana F. De Moura, Mourad Moursi, Abdelrahman Lubowa, Barbara Ha, Erick Boy, Babatunde Oguntona, Rasaki A. Sanusi, Busie Maziya-Dixon. (2015). Cassava Intake and Vitamin A Status among Women and Preschool Children in Akwa-Ibom, Nigeria. PLoS ONE 10 (6): e0129436.
Yusuf A. Z., Zakir A., Shemau Z., Abdullahi M., Halima S. A., and SANI K. (2014). Visual defects among consumers of processed cassava (gari). Af rican Journal of Food Science. Vol 8 (1): 25-29.
Olasore, A. H and Samuel, T. A. (2010). Gari Based Kwashiokorrigenic Diets Compromised some Renal Functions in Albino Rats. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2: 215-220.
Olaf Müller and Micheal Krawinkel. Ahmad H, Liaqat P, Paracha P, Qayyum A, Uppal MA. (2005). Malnutrition and health in developing countries. CMAJ. 2; 173 (3): 279–286.
Oluwamukomi, M. O. (2015). Chemical and Sensory Properties of Gari Fortified with Sesame Seed Flour (Sesamum Indicum L.) FUTA Journal of Research in Sciences, 2015 (1): 123-131.
Oluwamukomi, M. O., Jolayemi, O. S. (2012). Physico-thermal and pasting properties of soy-melon-enriched “gari” semolina from cassava. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal, Vol. 14, No. 3, 105-116.
Arisa, N. U., O. B. Omosaiye, A. O. Adelekan and A. Alabi-Mac Foy, (2011). Chemical and Sensory qualities of gari fortified with groundnut flour. Afri. J. Food Sci. Technol., 2 (5): 116-119.
Besong, S. A., Ezekwe, M. O., Fosung, C. N. and Senwo, Z. N. (2011). Evaluation of nutrient composition of African melon oilseed (Cucumeropsis mannii Naudin) for human nutrition International Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism Vol. 3 (8), pp. 103 -108.
Lokuruka Mni. (2010). Soybean Nutritional Properties: The Good and The Bad About Soy Foods Consumption-A Review. African Journal of Food Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 10 (4): 2439-2459.
Aja, P. M., Ibiam, U. A., Uraku, A. J., Orji, O. U., Offor, C. E. and Nwali, B. U. (2013). Comparative Proximate and Mineral Composition of Moringa oleifera Leaf and Seed. Global Advanced Research Journal of Agricultural Science (ISSN: 2315-5094) Vol. 2 (5) pp. 137-141.
Odunfa, S. A. (1998). Cassava to gari. Nigerian Journal of Science and Technology. 1: 186-189.
AOAC (2000). Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis, 17th Edition, Washington D. C.
Beuchat, (1977). Functional and electrphorectic characteristics of succinylated peanut flour proteins. J. Agric. Food Chem., 25: 258-261.
Ukpabi, U. J. and C. Ndimele, (1990). Evaluation of the quality of garri produced in Imo State. Nig. Food J., 8: 105-109.
Cook, R. D. and E. N. Maduagwu, (1978). The effect of simple processing on the cyanide content of cassava chips. J. Food Technol., 13: 299-306.
Onasoga, M. O., Ayodele, D. O., Oyeyipo, O O. (2014). Chemical Changes during the Fortification of Cassava Meal (Gari) with African breadfruit (Treculia africana) Residue. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage, 18 (3): 506-512.
CODEX STAN 151, (1989). Rev. 1-1995. Codex Alimentarius Commission Standard for gari. Pp 1-6.
Egbebi A. O. (2014). Comparative studies on the three different species melon seed; (Citrulus vulgaries, Cucumeropsis manni and Leganaria siceraria). Sky Journal of Food Science Vol. 3 (1), pp. 001–004.
Teresa Banaszkiewicz (2011). Nutritional Value of Soybean Meal, Soybean and Nutrition, Prof. Hany El-Shemy (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-536-5, InTech, Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/books/soybean-andnutrition/nutritional-value-of-soybean-meal.
Montagnac, J. A., Davis, C. R. and Tanumihardjo, S. A. (2009). Nutritional Value of Cassava for Use as a Staple Food and Recent Advances for Improvement. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 8: 181–194.
Adelodun Lawrence Kolapo and Morenike Olayinka Sanni (2009). A comparative evaluation of the macronutrient and micronutrient profiles of soybean-fortified gari and tapioca. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 1, 90-94.
Olatunde, S. T, Olatunde, S. J and Ade-Omowaye, B. I. O. (2013). Production and evaluation of gari produced from cassava (Manihot esculenta) substituted with cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) PAK. J. FOOD SCI., 23 (3), 124-132.
Osungbaro, T. O; Jimoh, D, and Osundeyi, E. (2010). Functional and pasting properties of composite Cassava-Sorgum flour meals. Agric. Biol. J. N. Am., 2010, 1 (4): 715-720.
Ikegwu, O. J, Okechukwu, P. E andEkumankana, E. O. (2010). Physico-Chemical and Pasting Characteristics of Flour and Starch from Achi Brachystegia eurycoma Seed. Journal of Food Technology. Vol. 8 (2): 58-66.
Shittu, T. A., O. O. Lasekan, L. O. Sanni, and M. O. Oladosu. (2001). The effect of drying methods on the functional and sensory characteristics of pupuru-a fermented cassava product. ASSET-An International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Science, Enviroment and Technology, 1 (2): 9-16.
Oluwamukomi, M. O., I. A. Adeyemi, and I. B. Oluwalana (2005). Effects of soybean supplementation on the physicochemical and sensory properties of gari. Applied Tropical Agriculture, 10 (Special issue): 44-49.
Chen, M. J. and Lin, C. W. (2002). Factors affecting the water holding capacity of fibrinogen/plasma protein gels optimized by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Science 67 (7): 2579-2582.
Bankole, Y. O., Tanimola, O. A., Odunukan, R. O., Samuel, Samuel, D. O. (2013). An Assessment of the Functional Properties, Proximate Composition, Sensory Evaluation and Rheological Value of Gari Fortified with Bambara Groundnut Flour (Voandzeia Subterranean Thouars). Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Vol 2 No 10, 165-173.
Bainbridge Z, Tomlins K, Wellings K, Westby A (1996). Methods for Assessing Quality Institute, Ghatham, UK, pp. 22-23.
Ugwu, F. M. and Odo, M. O. (2008). Effect of Cassava Variety on the Quality and Shelf Stability of Soy-Garri. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7 (2): 381-384.