The Impact of Washing and Peeling of Cucumbers and Tomatoes in Reduction of Daily Intake of Dithiocarbamates
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 215-220
Received: Jul. 18, 2016;
Accepted: Jun. 21, 2017;
Published: Sep. 25, 2017
Views 1269 Downloads 74
Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Roohangiz Moradjoo, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Zohre Farahmandkia, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Jamshid Mohammadi, Department of Entomology, School of Medicin, Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran
Background: Pesticides residues on foods are potentially toxic to humans. They may induce adverse health effects such as cancer, effects on reproduction, immune and nervous system complications. One of the important goals of public and environmental health officials is reducing exposure to pesticide residues on foods. Materials and methods: In the present study, 80 samples of cucumbers and 60 samples of tomatoes were collected from greenhouses and after preparation, dithiocarbamates (DTCs) residues were analyzed. Dithiocarbamates were determined using spectrophotometric method. During this procedure a mixture of cupper was shaped from the reaction between CS2 and the cupper after acid decomposition of the DTCs in a 3 trap responsive order. The concentrations of DTCs remnant were compared with MRLs and their daily intake were calculated and compared with ADI. Results: The outcome depicted that washing with water and peeling may able the reduction of absorption of daily intake of the rest of DTCs from 1.8% (as percent of ADI) in unwashed cucumbers to 0.6% ADI and 0.13% ADI respectively. The DTCs residues daily intake in unwashed tomatoes samples were 0.66% ADI and also in water-washed and peeled tomatoes were 0.43% ADI and 0.23% ADI respectively. Conclusion: The daily intake of DTCs was reduced by washing with water and peeling significantly. Although the estimated daily intakes of DTCs in the studied vegetables do not pose a health risk in consumers, but, because the entrance of fungicides into the human body by other commodities, these daily intakes are considerable.
Mohammad Reza Mehrasebi,
The Impact of Washing and Peeling of Cucumbers and Tomatoes in Reduction of Daily Intake of Dithiocarbamates, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 6,
2017, pp. 215-220.
Tomlin, C. D. S. 1997. The Pesticide Manual, 11th ed. Surrey, UK: British Crop Protection Council.
Crnogorac, G., Schwack, W. 2009. Residue analysis of dithicarbamate fungicides. Analytical Chemistry 28: 40-50.
Schulte-Oehlmann U., Oehlmann J., and Keil F. 2011. Before the curtain falls endocrine-active pesticides--a German contamination legacy. Review Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 213: 137-159.
Bozena Lozowicka, Izabela Hrynko, Piotr Kaczynski Magdalena Jankowska, Ewa Rutkowsmh. Long-Term Investigation and Health Risk Assessment of Multi-class Fungicide. 2015 Pol. J. Environ. Stud. Vol. 25, No. 2.
Jardim A. N. O., Mello D. C., Goes F. C. S, Junior E. F. F., Caldas E. D., Pesticide residues in cashew apple, guava, kaki and peach: GC–lECD, GC–FPD and LC–MS/MS multiresidue method validation, analysis and cumulative acute risk assessment. 2014, Food Chemistry, 164: 195-204
Wu, F., Lu, W., Chen, J., Liu, W., & Zhang, L. 2010. Single-walled carbon nanotubes coated fibers for solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of pesticides in tea samples. Talanta 82: 1038-1043.
Renwick, A. G. 2002. Pesticide residue analysis and its relationship to hazard characterisation (ADI/ARfD) and intake estimations (NEDI/NESTI). Pest management science 58: 1073-1082.
Bajwa, U., Sandhu, K. S. 2014. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food-a review. Journal of food science and technology 51: 201-220.
Lipowska, T., Szymczyk, K., Danielewska, B., & Szteke, B. 1998. Influence of technological process on fenitrotion residues during production of concentrated apple juice: Short report. Polish journal of food and nutrition sciences 7: 293-297.
Ong, K. C., Cash, J. N., Zabik, M. J., Siddiq, M., & Jones, A. L. 1996. Chlorine and ozone washes for pesticide removal from apples and processed apple sauce. Food Chemistry 55: 153-160.
Fahey, J. E., Nelson, P. E., Ballee, D. L. 1970. Removal of Gardona from fruit by commercial preparative methods. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 18: 866–868.
Hegazy, M. E. A., Abdel-Razik M., Diab, M. M., Abu-Zahw, M. M. 1988. Sumithion residues on and in potato tubers. Annals of Agricultural Science – Cairo 33: 1291–1298.
Abou-Arab, AAK. 1999. Behavior of pesticides in tomatoes during commercial and home preparation. Food chemistry 65: 509-514.
Lentza-Rizos, C., & Balokas, A. 2001. Residue levels of chlorpropham in individual tubers and composite samples of postharvest-treated potatoes. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49: 710-714.
Singh, R., Madan, V. K., Singh, B., Kathpal, T. S. 2000. Dissipation of propham and chlorpropham residues in potato tubers, peel and pulp. Pesticide Research Journal 12: 133-136.
Lee, M. i.-Gyung, & Lee, S. u.-Rae. 1997. Reduction factors and risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides in Korean foods. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology 29: 240-248.
Yoshida, S., Murata, H., Imaida, M. 1992. Distribution of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits and removal by washing. Nippon Nogeikagaku Kaishi 66: 1007-1007.
Cullen, T. E. 1964. Spectrophotometric Determination of Dithiocarbamates Residues on Food Crops. Anal. Chem 36: 221-224.
Thier, H. P., Zeumer H., Eds. 1987. Dithiocarbamate and Thiuram Disulfide Fungicides, In Manual of Pesticide Residues Analysis; Pest icide Commission: Germany 1: 432.
Eloisa D. Caldas, Maria Hosana Conceição, Maria Clara C. Miranda, Luiz César K. R. de Souza, and Joaquim F. Lima 2001. Determination of Dithiocarbamate Fungicide Residue Residues in food by a Spectrophotometric Method Using a Vertical Disulfide Reaction System. Journal of agriculture and food chemistry 49: 4521–4525.
Keppel, G. E. 1971. Collaborative Study of the Determination of Dithiocarbamate. Residues by a Modified Carbon Disulfide Evolution Method. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem 4: 528-532.
USEPA, 1993. The determination of dithiocarbamate pesticides in municipal and industrial waste water. Method 630, 821/R-93-010-A.
K. K. Sharma, & Delhi, new. (2007). Pesticide Residue Analysis Manual. Indian Council of agricaultural Reasarch., 1-293.
USEPA, Office of Pesticide Programs. 2000. Assining Values to nondetected/non-uantifid Pesticide Residues in Human Health Food Exposure Assesments.. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington, DC 20460.
PSD (Pesticides Safety Directorate) (2006) New intake calculation models for consumer intake assessments. http://www.detergents.gov.uk
WHO, 2005. The WHO Recommended Classification of Pesticides by Hazard and Guidelines to Classification, WHO/IPCS/IOMC.
Geetanjali Kaushik, G., Satya S., Naik S. N. 2009. Food processing a tool to pesticide residue dissipation – A review. Food Research International 42: 26–40.