International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 228-236
Received: Jul. 27, 2017;
Accepted: Aug. 14, 2017;
Published: Oct. 26, 2017
Views 1503 Downloads 64
Arukwe Dorothy Chinomnso, Department of Food Science and Technology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Nwanekezi Emmanuel Chidi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Okorie Stanislaus Udeze, Department of Food Science and Technology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria
Combined effects of different processing methods of pigeon pea on the protein qualities of formulated diets using rat feeding were investigated. Eight sets of diets were formulated from pigeon pea flour sample that was soaked (control i.e. diet SoPPF), soaked and boiled (diet SoBPPF), soaked and fermented (diet SoFPPF), soaked, boiled and fermented (diet SoBFPPF), soaked and sprouted (diet SoSpPPF), soaked, sprouted and boiled (diet SoSpBPPF), soaked, sprouted and fermented (diet SoSpFPPF) and soaked, sprouted, boiled and fermented (diet SoSpBFPPF). The formulated diets were subjected to proximate analysis. A 14-day rat feeding experimental study was conducted to assess the combined effects of sprouting, boiling and fermentation of pigeon pea on the protein utilization in rats. The albino rats were divided into eight sets for consumption of the eight sets of diets. The formulated diets proximate results showed that the proteins are above that recommended by PAG (1971) for weaning foods. The feed intake and weight gain/loss results showed that rats fed diet SoSpFPPF had the highest feed intake and highest percentage weight gain (11.62g and 20.3%) followed by rats fed on diet SoSpBFPPF. Protein qualities result showed that rats fed diet SoSpFPPF had the highest nitrogen intake, nitrogen balance, apparent digestibility, PER, NPU and BV. Therefore, combined soaking/sprouting/fermentation and soaking /sprouting /boiling/fermentation are the best methods of processing pigeon pea.
Arukwe Dorothy Chinomnso,
Nwanekezi Emmanuel Chidi,
Okorie Stanislaus Udeze,
Effects of Combined Processing Methods on Protein Qualities of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan) Flour Samples Using Rat Feeding, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 6,
2017, pp. 228-236.
Akeredolu, P., Addo, A. A. and Akeredolu, O. A. (2005). Clinical evaluation of pearl millet conophor weaning mix as supplementary food for Nigerian children. Brazillian Arch. Bio. Technol. 48: 531–536.
AOAC (2005). Official Methods of Analysis International. 18th Edition. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, USA.
Ariahu, C. C., Ukpabi, U. and Mbajunwa, K. O. (1999). Production of African breadfruit (Treculia Africana) and soyabean (Glycine max) seed based food formulations. 1: Effects of germination and fermentation on nutritional and organoleptic quality. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 54: 123–266.
Chikwendu, N. J. and Obizoba, J. C. (2003). Nutritive evaluation of protein quality of ground bean (Kerstingiellageocarpa) based diets. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Science vol. 24: 64–67.
De Silva, S. S., Shim, K. F. and Khim Ong, A. (1990). An evaluation of the method used in digestibility estimation of a dietary ingredient and comparisons on external and internal markers and time of faeces collection in digestibility studies in the fish Oreochomisaureus (Steindachner). Reproduction, Nutrition, Development 30: 215–216.
Edema, M. O. and Sanni, A. (2006). Microorganisms population of fermenting maize meal for sour maize bread production in Nigeria. Niger. J. Microbiol. 20(2): 937–946.
Ezueh, M. I. (1977). Cultivation and utilization of minor food legumes in Nigeria. Tropical Grain Legume Bulletin 10: 227.
Falmata, A. S., Modu, S., Badau, H. D., Babagana, M. and Bintu, B. P. (2014). Formulation and evaluation of complementary weaning food prepared from single and combined sprouted/fermented local red sorghum (S. bicolor) variety blended with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and groundnut (Arachishypogea). Int. J. Biotechnol. Food Sci. vol. 2(8): 149-55.
FAO/WHO Codex Alimentarius (1982). Vol. IX Codex Standards for foods for special dietary uses including foods for infants and children and related code of hygienic practices 1st ed. Rome, pp. 15–58.
FAO/WHO/UNU (1985). Energy and Protein Requirements. Reports of a Joint FAO/WHO/UNU. Experts Consultation WHO Tech. Report Series. 742. WHO Geneva.
Farris, D. G. and Singh, U. (1990). Pigeon pea nutrition and products. In: Y. L. Nene et al. The pigeon pea. Petencheru A. P. 502324, India ICRISAT pp. 467.
Friedman, M. and Cuq, J. L. (1988). Chemistry, analysis, nutritional value and toxicology of tryptophan. J. Agric. Food Chem. 36: 1079–1093.
Hackler, L. R. (1977). Methods of measuring protein quality. A review of bioassay procedures. Cereal Chemistry 54(4): 984–995.
Henry, C. J. K. and Massey, D. (2001). Micronutrient Changes during food processing and storage. Crops Post Harvest Programme (CPHP) – Issue paper, 5 December 2001.
Ihekoronye, I. A. and Ngoddy, P. O. (1985). Integrated Food Science and Technology for the Tropics. Macmillan Publishers Ltd. London.
Ijarotimi, S. O. and Keshinro, O. O. (2011). Determination of Amino acid, Fatty acid, mineral, Functional and choking properties of Germinated and fermented popcorn (Zea mays) everta) flour. European Journal of Food Research and Review 1(2): 102–122.
Ikemefuna, C. (1998). Scialert. net/fulltext/%3F doi. Accessed 10 August 2014.
Liener, I. E. (1980). Heat labile antinutritional factors. In: Advances in Legume Science (Eds. Summerfield, R. J. and Bunting, A. H.). Kew London, Royal Botanic Gardens, pp. 157-170.
Mbaeyi, I. E. and Onweluzo, J. C. (2010). Effect of sprouting and pre-gelatinization on the physicochemical properties of sorghum-pigeon pea composite blend used for the production of breakfast cereal. J. Tropical Agric. 2: 234-239.
Nwabueze, T. U. (2008). Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded African breadfruit (Treculia Africana Decne) based diets. Nig. Food J. 26(1): 27–42.
Oloyo, R. A. (2004). Chemical and nutritional quality changes in germinating seeds of Cajanuscajan L. Food Chemistry 85: 497–502.
Onweluzo, J. C. and Nwabugwu, C. C. (2009). Fermentation of millet and pigeon pea seeds for flour production. Effect of composition and selected functional properties. Pak. J. Nutr. 8(6): 737-744.
Oshodi, A. A. and Ekperigin, N. M. (1989). Functional properties of pigeon pea flour (Cajanuscajan). Food Chem. 34: 187.
PAG (1971). Protein Advisory Group of the United Nations Guidelines no. 8: Protein rich mixtures for use as weaning foods. New York: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization/United Nations Children’s Funds. Pp. 1–7.
Ugwu, F. M., Ekwu, F. C. and Okoye, I. C. (2002). Protein quality Indices and Food Intake Pattern of parboiled and roasted breadfruit-corn diets. J. Sci., Agric., Food and Environment 2: 97-100.