Co-Administered Vitamin E Isoforms d-α-tocopherol and d-δ-tocotrienol Rich Fraction Promote Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle in Diabetics
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 47-55
Received: Jan. 22, 2018;
Accepted: Feb. 5, 2018;
Published: Feb. 27, 2018
Views 1137 Downloads 48
Bijo Elsy, Department of Anatomy, JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Aijaz Ahmed Khan, Department of Anatomy, JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
Veena Maheshwari, Department of Pathology, JN Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India
In diabetes the structural and functional recovery of skeletal muscle is impaired due to persistent hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. Vitamin E is known to be essential antioxidant for maintains the skeletal muscle homeostasis thus preventing oxidative damages. This study is designed to explore the effect of d-α-tocopherol and d-δ-tocotrienol rich fraction (d-δ-TRF) on crushed muscle regeneration in both healthy and diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced through single subcutaneous injection of aqueous alloxan at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Twenty four albino rats were divided into four groups; healthy control, diabetic control, healthy treated and diabetic treated. Treated groups received 100 mg/kg of d-α-tocopherol and d-δ-TRF each, orally, daily for three weeks. Through a horizontal mid-thigh skin incision and splitting of the fascia gluteus maximus was approached and crushed with Kocher’s forceps. Skin wound was closed with an absorbable suture. The crush-induced degenerative and regenerative changes in the muscle were studied by assessing the histological features, histomorphological measurements and biochemical analyses at the end of 3rd weeks. One- way ‘ANOVA’ and Student’s t-test were used for statistical analysis. All results revealed that the vitamin E isoforms have potency to maintain glycemic level, improve the antioxidant capacity and hasten the process of regeneration, revascularization, reinnervation and connective tissue remodeling in skeletal muscle after crush injury. It is therefore, concluded that the vitamin E isoforms are useful nutritional supplements for skeletal muscle functional and structural recovery in both healthy and diabetics.
Aijaz Ahmed Khan,
Co-Administered Vitamin E Isoforms d-α-tocopherol and d-δ-tocotrienol Rich Fraction Promote Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle in Diabetics, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2018, pp. 47-55.
Lim JJ, Wan Ngah WZ, Mouly V, Karim NA. Reversal of Myoblast Aging By Tocotrienol Rich Fraction Post Treatment. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 2013; 1-11.
Mouly V, Aamiri A, Bigot A, Cooper RN, Di Donna S, Furling D et al. Themitotic clockinskeletal muscle regeneration, disease and cell mediated gene therapy. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. 2005;184: 3-15.
Aragno M, Mastrocola R, Catalano MG, Brignardello E, Danni O, Boccuzzi G. Oxidative stress impairs skeletal muscle repair in diabetic rats. Diabetes.2004; 53:1082-1088.
Howard AC, McNeil AK, Paul L. Promotion of plasma membrane repair by vitamin E. Nature communications 2011; 1594: 1-8.
Labazi M, McNeil AK, Kurtz T, Lee TC, Pegg RB, Angeli JPF, Conrad M, McNeil PL. The Antioxidant requirement for plasma membrane repair in skeletal muscle. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 2015; 84: 246-253.
Matough FA, Budin SB, Zariyantey AH, Mariati AR, Al-Wahaib Ni, Jamaludine M. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Palm Oil Prevents Oxidative Damage in Diabetic Rats. Sultan Qaboos University Med J 2014; 14: 95-103.
Elsy B, Khan AA, Maheshwari V. Regenerative potential of d-δ-tocotrienol rich fraction on crushed skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2017; 5(2):36-42.
Elsy B, Khan AA, Maheshwari V. Effects of d-a-Tocopherol on skeletal muscle regeneration in crushed injury of diabetic rats. Eur J Anat. 2017; 21(4): 293-304.
Elsy B, Maheshwari V, Khan AA. Effects of d α-Tocopherol on Progression of Reepithelialization, Matrix Remodeling and Appearance of Epidermal Appendages in Secondary Skin Wounds of Diabetic Rats. J Dermatolog Clin Res 2016; 4: 1081-1087.
Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 1972; 47: 389-394.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”: the FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996; 239: 70-76.
Elsy B, Khan AA, Maheshwari V. Effect of co-administration of vitamin E isoforms d-a-tocopherol and d-δ-tocotrienol rich fraction on the healing of skin wounds in diabetic rats. Int J Biomed Eng Clin Sci. 2017; 3(5): 52-62.
Glauser SR, Glauser J, Hatem SF. Diabetic muscle infarction: a rare complication of advanced diabetes mellitus. Emerg Radiol 2008; 15: 61-5.
Musarò A. The Basis of Muscle Regeneration. Advances in Biology 2014; 612471: 1-16.
Karalaki M, Fili S, Philippou A, Koutsilieris M. Muscle Regeneration: Cellular and Molecular Events. In vivo. 2009; 23: 779-796.
Blaveri K, Heslop L, Yu DS, Rosenblatt JD, Gross JG, Partridge TA, Morgan JE: Patterns of repair of dystrophic mouse muscle: studies on isolated fibers. Dev Dyn 1999; 216: 244-256.
Bourke DL, Ontell M. Branched myofibers in long-term whole muscle transplants: a quantitative study. Anat Rec 1984; 209: 281-288.
Chargé SB, Rudnicki MA. Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle regeneration. Physiol Rev 2004; 84: 209-238.
Aughsteen AA, Khair AB, Suleiman AA. Quantitative Morphometric Study of the Skeletal Muscles of Normal and Streptozotocin-Diabetic Rats. JOP J Pancreas (Online) 2006; 7:382-389.
Yin H, Price F, Rudnick MA. Satellite Cells and the Muscle Stem Cell Niche. Physiol Rev 2013; 93: 23-67.
Lewis MP, Tippett HL, Sinanan AC, Morgan MJ, Hunt NP. Gelatinase-B (matrix metalloproteinase-9; MMP-9) secretion is involved in the migratory phase of human and murine muscle cell cultures. J Muscle Res Cell Motil 2000; 21: 223-23.
Carlson BM, Faulkner JA. The regeneration of skeletal muscle fibers following injury: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1983; 15: 187-198.
Elsy B, Khan AA, Maheshwari V. Neuroregenerative effects of d-α-tocopherol on the crushed sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Innovare J Health Sci 2017; 5: 1-6.
Elsy B, Khan AA, Maheshwari V. Neuroprotective effects of d-δ-tocotrienol rich fraction on crushed sciatic nerve in diabetic rats. Eur j pharmaceutic med res, 2017; 4: 489-500.
Mozdziak PE, Pulvermacher PM, Schultz E. Muscle regeneration during hind limb unloading results in a reduction in muscle size after reloading. J Appl Physiol 2001; 91:183-190.
Mitchell PO, Pavlath GK. Skeletal muscle atrophy leads to loss and dysfunction of muscle precursor cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2004; 287: 1753-62.
Slater CR, Schiaffino S. Skeletal muscle repair and regeneration, in Advances in Muscle Research. Springer, Amsterdam, 2008; Ed: 303-334.
Bagdade JD, Helve E, Taskinen MR. Effect of continuous insulin infusion therapy lipoprotein surface and core lipid composition in IDDM. Metab. 1991; 40:445-9.
Arora P, Jain B, Kohli GK, Sehgal M, Goyal RK. Dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ind Med Gaz. 2002: 258-60.
Tavaresde Almeida DA, Pereira Braga C, Barbosa Novelli EL, Henrique Fernandes AA. Evaluation of Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress in STZ Induced Rats Treated with Antioxidant Vitamin. Braz Arch Biol Technol. 2012;55: 527-36
Budin SB, Othman F, Louis SR, Bakar MA, Das S and Mohamed J. The effects of palm oil tocotrienol-rich fraction supplementation on biochemical parameters, oxidative stress and the vascular wall of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Clinics Sao Paulo, 64, 2009, 235-244.
Vasudevan DM, Sreekumari S. Textbook of Biochemistry (For Medical Students), 4th ed. 2005; 340-341.
Jeyashanthi N, Ashok V. Anti-Oxidative Effect of Cassia auriculata on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats. Ind J Clin Biochem 2010; 25: 429-434.
Shirpoor A, Ansari MHK, Salami S, Pakdel FG, RasmiY. Effect of vitamin E on oxidative stress status in small intestine of diabetic rat. World J Gastroenterol 2007; 13: 4340-4344.
Tiwari BK, Pandey KB, Abidi AB, Rizvi SI. Markers of Oxidative Stress during Diabetes Mellitus. J Biomark 2013; ID 378790.
Alireza N, Bokaeian M, Mohsen S, Ali F, Azim A. Attenuation of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats by eucalyptus globulus. Ind J Clin Biochem 2009; 24: 419-425.