Factors Affecting Consumers’ Choice in Consumption of Organic Vegetables and Methods Used to Avoid Consumption of Unhealthy Foods in Tanzania
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 7, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 71-80
Received: Jan. 29, 2018;
Accepted: Mar. 21, 2018;
Published: Apr. 11, 2018
Views 832 Downloads 29
Willbroad Kawemama, Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumers Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Jovin Mugula, Department of Food Technology, Nutrition and Consumers Sciences, Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania
Alex Wostry, Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania Organization, Morogoro, Tanzania
Janet Maro, Sustainable Agriculture Tanzania Organization, Morogoro, Tanzania
In the previous decades, there has been an upsurge of use of pesticides on food produces. Many consumers now perceive or are knowledgeable that consumption of organic vegetables is healthier than consuming their corresponding items. A cross sectional study was done to assess the factors affecting consumers’ choice in consumption of organic vegetables and methods used to avoid consumption of unhealthy foods in Morogoro and Kinondoni municipalities. A total of 200 paticipants half from each segment were interviewed using a constructed and pretested structured questionnaire. However, the analysis was done to 192 residents, half from each study segment. Data analysis was done through SPSS version 20. Scale liability was tested with Cronbach alpha. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine factors that affected the consumers’ choice and identify as well as the approaches used by them to avoid the consumption of unhealthy foods. To avoid consumption of foods that were perceived perilous, physical appearance was a common method used by most (52%, β = 0.493) consumers compared to reading product labels (45.3%, β = 0.296), asking product information (38%, β = 0.434) and product tasting (26%, β = 0.146). The low purchasing and consumption rates of organic vegetables were significantly different (P< 0.05), affected by their perceived low shelf life (β = 0.108), lack of uniqueness (β = 0.071) and unavailability in the market (β = 0.032). Most organic food growers (97%) needed an external participatory guarantee system for liable market so that producers and investors cooperate with organic growers for business-oriented aspects.
Factors Affecting Consumers’ Choice in Consumption of Organic Vegetables and Methods Used to Avoid Consumption of Unhealthy Foods in Tanzania, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2018, pp. 71-80.
Annunziata, A. and Vecchio, R. (2016). Organic farming and sustainability in food choices: an analysis of consumer preference in Southern Italy. Journal of Agriculture and Agricultural Science Procedia, 8: 193-200.
Arbenz, M., Gould, D. and Stopes, C. (2016). The world of organic agriculture. Statistics and emerging trends 2016. ISOFAR international organic EXPO 2015, Goesan county. [https://shop.fibl.org/fileadmin/documents/shop/1698-organic-world-2016.pdf] site visited on 23/ 06/2016.
Bartlett, E. J., Kotrlink, W. J. and Higgins, C. C. (2001). Organizational research: Determining appropriate sample size in survey research. [https://www. researchgate.net/publication/200824035_organizational_research_determining_appropriate_sample_size_in_survey_research] site visited on 07/06/2015.
Benbrook, C. and Davis, R. D. (2011). Identifying smart food choices on the path to healthier diets. Available [https://organic-center.org/reportfiles/TOC-NQI_ Methodology_Final_9-10-11.pdf] site visited on 08/09/2016.
Dickieson, J. A., Arkus, V. and Wiertz, C. (2009). Factors that influence the purchase of organic food: A study of consumer behaviour in the UK. [www.ein-herz-fuer-bio.org/sites/default/files/downloads/dickiesonj__arkusv.pdf] site visited on 08/07/2016.
Dimitri, C. and Dettmann, R. (2012). Organic food consumers: What do we really know about them? Brazilian. Food Journal, 114: 1157–1183.
Erman, E. (2015). Does organic produce spoil faster than conventional? [http://www.organicauthority.com/does-organic-produce-spoil-faster-than-conventional/] site visited on 23/04/2016.
Export Promotion of Organic Products from Africa (EPOPA) (2004). Basic data on certified organic production and export in Tanzania 2003. [www.grolink. se/epopa/.../Org%20Prod%20and%20Exp%20TZ-03.pdf] site visited on 03/05/2015.
FAO (2010). Linking people, places and products: A guide for promoting quality linked to geographical origin and sustainable geographical indications. [http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1760e/i1760e.pdf] site visited on 02/05/2016.
FAO (2012). Organic Agriculture and the Law. [http://www.fao.org/docrep /016/i2718e/i2718e.pdf] site visited on 12/09/2016.
FiBl and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) (2015). Growth continues: Global organic market at 72 billion us dollars with 43 million hectares of organic agricultural land worldwide. [http://www.ifoam.bio/sites/ default/files/ifoam_pr_2015_02_10_world_of_organic_agriculture.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
FiBl and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) (2013). Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Key results from the FiBL-IFOAM survey on organic agriculture worldwide 2013 Part 2: Crop data [http://orgprints.org/ 22349/22/fibl-ifoam-2013-crops-2011.pdf] site visited on 12/6/2016.
Hamm, U. and Janssen, M. (2012). Product labelling in the market for organic food: Consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay for different organic certification logos. Journal of food quality and Preference, 25 (1): 9–22.
Huber, M., Rembiałkowska, E., Średnicka, D., Bügel, S. and Vijver, L. P. L. (2011). Organic food and impact on human health: Assessing the status quo and prospects of research. [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/ S1573521411000054] site visited on 10/09/2016.
Hughner, R. S., McDonagh, P., Prothero, A., Shultz, C. J. and Stanton, J. (2007). Who are organic food consumers? A compilation and review of why people purchase organic food. Journal of Consumer Behavior, 6: 1–17.
Islam, S. (2013). Retail price differential between organic and conventional vegetables. [asbbs.org/files/ASBBS2013/PDF/I/IslamS(P537-545).pdf] site visited on 07/09/2016.
Kato, T. (2013). Impact of agricultural input subsidies on poverty in Tanzania: REPOA’s 18th Annual Research. [www.repoa.or.tz/documents_storage/GD3.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
Kemmet, D. and Brotherson, S. (2015). Making sense of sensory losses as we age: childhood, adulthood, elder hood? [https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/pubs/yf/ famsci/fs1378.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
Kothari, C. R. (2009). Research Methodology: Methods and Techniques. University of Rajasthan Jaipur, India. 401pp.
Lagerkvist, J. C. (2013). Consumer preferences for food labelling attributes: Comparing direct ranking and best–worst scaling for measurement of attribute importance, preference intensity and attribute dominance. Journal of Food Quality and Preference, 29 (2): 77–88.
Larson, F., Muraoka, R. and Otsuka, K. (2016). Why African rural development strategies must depend on small farms. Journal of global Food Security, 10: 39–51.
Magee, H. (2009). Talking about taste: How the description of food means and does? [https://www.swarthmore.edu/.../default/.../2009_Mag...] site visited on 29/04/2016.
Magistris, D. T. and Gracia, A. (2016). Consumers' willingness-to-pay for sustainable food products: the case of organically and locally grown almonds in Spain. Journal of Cleaner Production, 118: 97–104.
Matt, D., Rembialkowska, E., Luik, A., Peetsmann, E. and Pehme, S. (2011). Quality of organic vegetables. conventional vegetables and effects on health [orgprints.org/19504 /1/Report_2011_(1).pdf] site visited on 21/04/2016.
Michaelidou, N. and Hassan, M. L. (2010). Modeling the factors affecting rural consumers’ purchase of organic and free-range produce: a case study of consumers’ from the Island of Arran in Scotland, UK. Journal of Food Policy, 35 (2): 130-139.
Misner, S. and Florian, A. T. (2013). Organically grown foods versus non-organically grown foods. [extension.arizona.edu/pubs/az1603.pdf] site visited on 05/08/2016.
Moshi, P. A. and Matoju, I. (2016). The status of research on and application of bio pesticides in Tanzania. Review. Journal of Crop Protection, 92: 16–28.
Mutlu, N. and Becker, T. (2007). Consumer attitude and behavior towards organic vegetables: Cross-cultural study of Turkey and German. [orgprints.org/ 13727/1/MasterThesis-ConsumerStudy-TR-DE.pdf] site visited on 05/06/2016.
National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) (2014). Basic demographic and socio-economic profile statistical tables Tanzania mainland. Ministry of Finance Dar es Salaam. [http://www.tanzania.go.tz/egov_uploads/documents/TANZANIA_MAINLAND_SOCIO_ECONOMIC_PROFILE_sw.pdf] site visited on 12/8/2015.
National Organic Agriculture Forum (NOAF) (2008). National organic agriculture development programme for Tanzania 2009-2015. [www.kilimohai.org] site visited on 07/09/2016.
Naughton, P., McCarthy, M. and McCarthy, S. (2015). Acting to self-regulate unhealthy eating habits. An investigation into the effects of habit, hedonic hunger and self-regulation on sugar consumption from confectionery foods. Journal of Food Quality and Preference, 46: 173–183.
Ngowi, A. V. F., Mbise, T. J., Ijani, A. S. M., London, L. and Ajayi, O. C. (2008). Pesticides use by smallholder farmers in vegetable production in Northern Tanzania. Journal of Science Total Environment, 26 (11): 1617–1624.
Nonga, H. E., Mdegela, R. H., Lie, E., Sandvik, M. and Skaare, J. U. (2011). Assessment of farming practices and uses of agrochemicals in Lake Manyara basin, Tanzania. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(10): 2216-2230.
Paul, V. U., Lossini, S. J., Edwards, J. P. and Hilberck, A. (2009). Effectiveness of products from four locally grown plants for the management of Acanthoscelidesobtectus (Say) and Zabrotessubfasciatus (Boheman) (both Coleoptera: Bruchidae) in stored beans under laboratory and farm conditions in Northern Tanzania. Journal of Stored Products Research, 45: 97–107.
Pesticide and Poverty Report Tanzania (2006). A case study on trade and utilization of pesticides in Tanzania: Implication to stockpiling. [http://www.pan-uk.org /archive/projects/obsolete/15.%20trade_and_utilization_of_pesticides_in_ tanzania_final.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) (2013). Organic agriculture worldwide: Key results from the FiBL-IFOAM survey on organic agriculture worldwide 2013. global data and survey background. [orgprints.org/22349/28/fibl-ifoam-2013-global-data-2011.pdf] site visited on 14/07/2016.
Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement (IFOAM) (2015). World of organic agriculture. [https://www.fibl.org/fileadmin/documents/shop/1663-organic-world-2015.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
Robinson, R. O., Larson, N., Dianne, N. S., Peter, H. and Story, M. (2009). Characteristics and dietary patterns of adolescents who value eating locally grown, organic, non-genetically engineered, and non-processed food. Journal of Nutrition Education Behavior, 41(1): 11-18.
Roos, G., Kjærnes, U. and Ose, T. (2010). Warning labels on food from the point of view of the consumers. [https://www.mattilsynet.no/ mat_og_vann/ merking_av_mat/ allergener] site visited on 09/08/2016.
Rosinger, C. (2013). Organic agriculture and certification in Eastern Africa: a theoretical analysis with special reference to food security issues in Tanzania. Available at [http://www.shabka.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/Shabka-Background_2-2013_Organic-agriculture-and-certification-in-Eastern-Africa.pdf] site visited on 10/08/2016.
Ruhl, L. H. (2013). Slow food: From farm to healthy body. [http://digitalcommons. library.umaine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1130&context=honors] site visited on 02/08/2016.
Samson, G. (2012). Awareness of food labeling and use of the information in purchasing prepackaged food products among consumers in Ilala municipality Dar es –Salaam. [http://ihi.eprints.org/1641/1/GWANTWA_SAMSON.pdf] site visited on 07/06/2016.
Shepherd, R., Magnusson, M. and Sjoden, P. O. (2005). Determinants of consumer behavior related to organic vegetables. A Journal of Human Environment, 34(4): 352-359.
Tulchinsky, H. T. and Varavikova, A. E. (2014). Nutrition and Food Safety. New Public Health (Third Edition), academic press California. [http://www. sciencedirect.com] site visited on 08/09/2016.
Urena, F., Bernabeu, R. and Olmeda, M. (2008). Women, men and organic vegetables. Differences in their attitudes and willingness to pay. A Spanish case study. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32: 18–26.
Vecchio, R., Loo, J. V. E. and Annunziata, A. (2016). Consumers' Willingness to Pay for Conventional, Organic and Functional yogurt: evidence from experimental auctions. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 40(3): 368–378.
WHO (2004). Nutrition labels and health claim. the global regulatory environment. [whqlibdoc.who.int/.../2004/9241591714.pdf] site visited on 10/09/2016.
WHO (2015). Food safety: What you should know. World health day. [http://www.searo.who.int/entity] site visited on 10/07/2016.
Willer, H. and Kilcher, L. (2012). World of organic agriculture - Statistics and emerging trends 2009. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) and Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL). [http://orgprints.org/18380/16/willer-kilcher-2009.pdf] site visited on 08/6/2015.
Willer, H. and Youssefi, M. (2007). World of organic agriculture - Statistics and emerging trends 2008. International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) & Research Institute of Organic Agriculture (FiBL). [http://orgprints.org/13123/4/world-of-organic-agriculture-2008.pdf] site visited on 14/06/2015.
Yi, K. L. (2009). Consumer behaviour towards organic food consumption in hong Kong: an empirical study. [libproject.hkbu.edu.hk/trsimage/hp/06011446.pdf] site visited on 05/09/2009.
Zhao, X., Chambers, E., Matta, Z., Loughin, T. and Carey, E. (2007). Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables. Journal of Food Science, 72: 87–91.
Macknnon, S. (2013). The national organic market. growth, trends and opportunities, 2013. Agriculture and agri-food Canada. [https://ota.com/ sites/default/files/ indexed_files/COTA_nationalorganicmarketsummary.pdf] site visited on 26/09/2016.