Physicochemical Characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Oil: Effect of Extraction Procedure
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 6-1, November 2014, Pages: 1-5
Received: Jul. 9, 2014;
Accepted: Jul. 22, 2014;
Published: Aug. 20, 2014
Views 4204 Downloads 328
Ali Rafe, Department of Food Nanotechnology, Research Institute of Food Science and Technology (RIFST), Mashhad, Iran
Mohsen Saberi Nadjafi, Industrial Biotechnology Institute, Iranian Academic Center for Education, Culture and Research (ACECR), Mashhad, Iran
Garlic oil (GO) is behaves as a nutraceutical compound; however, its application is limited due to its pungency, undesirable aroma, low stability and solubility. The physicochemical properties of GO are certainly key parameters in the encapsulation process. Therefore, the aim of the current work was to study the effect of different extraction procedures such as solvent extraction, distillation method and supercritical fluid extraction (SCF) on the physicochemical properties of garlic oil. The yield of GO was influenced by extraction method and was approximately 5.5, 6 and 7% for steam distillation, solvent methods and SCF-Co2, respectively. The specific gravity was obtained as 0.894 g/cm3 and independent to the extraction method, while the viscosity was changed and more viscosity was obtained by SCF-Co2. The chemical analyses revealed 2.5 as the acid value, 1.27 for free fatty acids, 1.8 as the saponificacation value and 14.5 as the iodine value of GO by SCF-Co2.The results showed that the SCF-Co2 had minor quality and nutritional loss on the GO, and could be applied for special purposes such as encapsulation of garlic oil.
Mohsen Saberi Nadjafi,
Physicochemical Characteristics of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Oil: Effect of Extraction Procedure, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Special Issue: Optimizing Quality and Food Process Assessment.
Vol. 3, No. 6-1,
2014, pp. 1-5.
Block, E. (2010). Garlic and other Alliums: The lore and the science. Royal society of Chemistry. pp. 190-9.
McGee, H. (2004). The Onion Family: Onions, Garlic, Leeks. On food and cooking revised edition sceribnes. pp. 310-313.
Block, E. (1992). The organosulfur chemistry of the genus Allium- implications for organic sulfur chemistry. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 140, 1158-1203.
Amagase, H., Petesch, B.L., Matsuura, H., Kasuga, S., & Hakura, Y. (2001). Intake of Garlic and its bioactive components. The Journal of nutrition. 131, 955- 962.
Carson, J. F. (1987). Chemistry and Biological Properties of Onions and Garlic, Food Reviews International. 3, 71.
Andreatta, A.E., Foco, G., Mabe, G., & Bottini, S.B. (2005). Extraction of garlic oil with Quasi-Critical Solvents. ENPROMA, Argentina. 1-9.
Nagpurkar, A., Peschell, J., & Holub, B. J. (2000). Garlic constituents and disease prevention. In G. Massa, & B. D. Oomah (Eds.), Herbs, botanicals & teas (pp. 1–21). Lancaster, PA: Technomic Publishing Co., Inc.
Turner, J. (2004). Spices The History of a Temptation of Vintage Books .1st Ed. 16.
Brunner, G. (1994). Gas extraction: an introduction to fundamentals of supercritical fluids and the application to separation processes. New York, NY: Springer.
del Valle, J. M., & Aguilera, J. M. (1989). Effects of substrate densification and CO2 conditions on supercritical extraction of mushroom oleoresins. Journal of Food Science, 54, 135–141.
Calvey, E. M.; Matusik, J. E.; White, K. D.; Betz, J. M.; Block, E.; Littlejohn, M. H.; Naganathan, S.; Putman, D. (1994). Off-line supercritical-fluid extraction of thiosulfinates from garlic and onion. J. Agr. Food Chem. 42 (6), 1335-1341.
Calvey, E. M.; Matusik, J. E.; White, K. D.; DeOrazio, R.; Sha, D.; Block, E. (1997). Allium chemistry: supercritical fluid extraction and LC-APCI-MS of thiosulfinates and related compounds from homogenates of garlic, onion, and ramp. Identification in garlic and ramp and synthesis of 1-propanesulfinothioic acid S-allyl ester. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45 (11), 4406-4413.
Ryback, M. E., Calvey, E. M., & Harnly, J. M. (2004). Quantitative determination of allicin in garlic: supercritical fluid extraction and standard addition of alliin. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 52, 682–687.
del Valle, J. M., Rivera, O., Teuber, O., and Palma, M.T. (2003). Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Chilean Hop (Humulus lupulus) Ecotypes, Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 83, 1349.
del Valle, C. Mena & M. Budinich. (2008). Extraction of garlic with supercritical CO2 and conventional organic solvents. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, 25, 3, 535 – 542.
AOAC International. 1995. Official Methods of Analysis of the AOAC International, 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA. USA.
Kopecký, F. (1999). Physics for Students of Pharmacy I. Bratislava, UK. 184 s. (in Slovak).
Hodgman, C.D. & N.A. Lange. Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Cleveland: Chemical Rubber Co., 1924: 312-313.
Weast, R.C., et al. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1988-1989: F3.
Mohammed M.I., & Hamza, Z.U. (2008). Physicochemical Properties of Oil Extracts from Sesamum Indicum L. Seeds Grown in Jigawa State-Nigeria. Journal Applied Environment Management.12, 2, 99-100.
Ogbuagu, M.N. (2008). Inhibitory effect of onion and garlic extracts on the rancidity of palm and palmKernel Oils. Journal Chemistry Society of Nigeria, 33, 1, 43-44.
Nielsen NS, Klein A, Jacobsen C. (2009). Effect of ingredients on oxidative stability of fish oil enriched drinking yoghurt. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology.111:337–345.
Warra, A. A., Gunu, S.Y., Jega A., & Aisha. J.A. (2011). Soap Production from Shea nut Butter. International Journal of Applied Sciences. 5, 4:410-412.
Apple white, Thomas. (1985). Bailey’s industrial oil and fat products. John wiley and sons. Newyork.
Kamalu, C.I.O, & Oghome, P. (2008). Extration and Characterization of Tiger Nut oil. Journal of chemistry Society of Nigeria. 33, 1, 79-87.
Fasina O.O. & Colley Z. (2008). Vscosity and specific heat of vegetable oils as a function of temperature: 35°C to 180°C. International Journal of Food Properties, 11: 738–746.