Sustainability, Security and Safety in the Feed-to-Fish Chain: Focus on Toxic Contamination
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 2-2, March 2015, Pages: 6-24
Received: Feb. 5, 2015; Accepted: Mar. 30, 2015; Published: May 6, 2015
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Authors
Alberto Mantovani, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy
Daniela Ferrari, Department Drug Sciences and Health Products, University of Messina, Viale Annunziata, 98168 Messina, Italy
Chiara Frazzoli, Department of Veterinary Public Health and Food Safety, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Roma, Italy
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Abstract
The paper discusses the issue of feed ingredients in aquaculture as a telling example of implementation of a sustainable food safety strategy, aimed at protecting the health of next generation, under the One Health paradigm. Finfish and fishery products are a main nutrition security component as a valuable source of animal protein, particularly in developing countries. In addition, they are a critical source of essential oligo-nutrients, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and iodine. Production and consumption of fish has greatly increased in the last decade, mostly due to the growth of aquaculture. While the demand for aquaculture products continues to increase, there is the need to address consumers' concerns related to the nutritional quality and safety. In fact, both wild and farmed finfish can represent a significant source of exposure to contaminants for the consumer: noticeably, caught and farmed fish have a comparable content of nutrients and contaminants. Aquaculture feeds made of fish meal and fish oil are the main vehicle for transfer of environmental pollutants to farmed fish. The main fish contaminants (e.g., methylmercury, PCBs, PBDE) can bioaccumulate and affect development in humans. Feed ingredients as well fish species have a different liability to contamination depending, e.g., on the lipophilicity of the specific chemicals. Up-to-date risk-benefit assessments show that high intake of fish may lead to an undesirable intake of pollutants which is not sufficiently balanced by the concurrent intake of protective nutrients, such as PUFA. The use of vegetable-based feed ingredients in aquaculture has been explored from the standpoints of economic sustainability and fish productivity to a greater extent than from those of food safety and nutritional value. Available data show that vegetable oils can significantly modulate the lipid profile in fish flesh, depending on the oil and fish species. The use of vegetable ingredients can drastically reduce the accumulation of the main contaminants in fish; likewise the presence of other “unconventional” contaminants (e.g. PAHs) and the nutritional value of fish flesh could deserve more attention in the assessment of novel aquaculture feeds.
Keywords
Aquaculture, Risk-to-Benefit Assessment, Environment, Diet, Nutrition, Toxicology
To cite this article
Alberto Mantovani, Daniela Ferrari, Chiara Frazzoli, Sustainability, Security and Safety in the Feed-to-Fish Chain: Focus on Toxic Contamination, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Special Issue: Human and Animal Exposures to Food and Feed Contaminants. Vol. 4, No. 2-2, 2015, pp. 6-24. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.s.2015040202.12
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