Anthrax: A Re-Emerging Livestock Disease
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 4-1, July 2015, Pages: 7-12
Received: Apr. 13, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 13, 2015; Published: May 12, 2015
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Authors
S. Parthiban, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
S. Malmarugan, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
M. S. Murugan, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
J. Johnson Rajeswar, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
P. Pothiappan, Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Veterinary College and Research Institute, Tamilnadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India
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Abstract
Anthrax is a contagious and highly fatal zoonotic bacterial disease affecting primarily herbivores. Mortality can be very high, especially in herbivores. The disease has world-wide distribution and is a zoonosis. The etiological agent is the endospore-forming, Gram-positive, nonmotile, rod-shaped Bacillus anthracis. Central to the persistence of anthrax in an area is the ability of B. anthracis to form long-lasting, highly resistant spores. Understanding the ecology of anthrax spores is essential if one hopes to control epidemics. Studies on the ecology of anthrax spores have found a correlation between the disease and specific soil factors, such as alkaline pH, high moisture, and high organic content. The repeated anthrax outbreak in livestock and subsequent infection to human has been considered as a nationwide alarming issue. Outbreaks of anthrax have diverse consequences on society. Establishing the appropriate control strategies is very important and crucial in reducing the socio-economic impact of the disease. Control measures are aimed at breaking the cycle of infection, and their implementation must be adhered to rigorously. It can be used as a biological weapon and has been classified as a Category ‘A’ bio threat by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This review describes this important disease covering its etiology, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical signs, diagnosis and prevention and control strategies to be adopted to combat this globally important pathogen.
Keywords
Anthrax, Ecological factors, Epidemics, Management strategies
To cite this article
S. Parthiban, S. Malmarugan, M. S. Murugan, J. Johnson Rajeswar, P. Pothiappan, Anthrax: A Re-Emerging Livestock Disease, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Special Issue: Review on Novel Approaches for the Management of Emerging and Reemerging Livestock Diseases. Vol. 4, No. 4-1, 2015, pp. 7-12. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.s.2015040401.12
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