Epidemiological Status and Vector Identification of Bovine Trypanosomiosis in Didesa District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 373-380
Received: Mar. 27, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 25, 2015; Published: May 11, 2015
Views 5772      Downloads 279
Gamechu Fayisa, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Aynalem Mandefro, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Birhanu Hailu, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Gemechu Chala, School of Veterinary Medicine, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia
Gezahegn Alemayehu, College of Veterinary Medicine, Samara University, Samara, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
A cross sectional study was conducted in Didesa district of Oromia Regional State from November 2013 to June 2014 to determine the prevalence of trypanosomosis and tsetse density. Simple random sampling was used to select 556 cattle from the purposively selected four PAs for collection of blood sample. Buffy coat technique was used to determine prevalence of bovine trypansomiosis in the study area and trap was deployed for collection of tsetse flies. Blood sample was examined and it was found that 27 (4.86%) were parasitic positive. The prevalence was insignificant (P>0.05) in sex group, age, body condition score and between peasant association. But PCV between parasitemic and aparasitaemic is significant (p< 0.05).In this study the most common trypanosome species identified were T. congolense (17/27, 62.96%) followed by T. vivax (9/27, 33.33% and mixed T. vivax and T. congolense (1/27, 3.70%). The proportional prevalence of T. congolense is significantly higher (P=0.000) than the other trypanosome species. The mean PCV values recorded were 21.52% in parasitaemic and 28.49% in aparasitaemic animals with a statistical significant difference (P<0.05). About 40 traps were deployed for 48 hours (2 days) for collection of tsetse fly. A total of 557 flies were collected from a study area, of which the higher density was for tsetse fly 382 (4.90 flies per trap per day) followed by 137 Stomoxys, 32 Tabanus and 6 haematopta. Generally, this study showed that trypanosomosis is still present and becomes a constraint for livestock production of the study area. So control and prevention mechanisms must be continued to reduce prevalence of the disease and tsetse flies population.
Trypanosomes, Tsetse Flies, Bovine, Didesa and Pcv
To cite this article
Gamechu Fayisa, Aynalem Mandefro, Birhanu Hailu, Gemechu Chala, Gezahegn Alemayehu, Epidemiological Status and Vector Identification of Bovine Trypanosomiosis in Didesa District of Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 373-380. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150403.25
Abebe, G., and Jobre, Y., (1996): Trypanosomosis. A threat to cattle production in Ethiopia.Rev.Med. Vet.147: 897-902.
Abebe, G., 2005: ‘Trypanosomosis in Ethiopia’, Ethiopian Journal of Biological Science 4:1, 75–123.
Abebe, G., Malone, J. B. and Thompson, A. R. (2004): Geospatial forecast model for tsetse transmitted animal trypanosomosis in Ethiopia. SINET, Ethio. J .sci. 27(1): 1-8.
Adam, K. M. G., Paul, J. and Zaman, V. (1979): Medical and Veterinary Protozology. An Illustrated Guide. Churchill Livingstone. Edinburgh and London.
Afework, Y. (1998). Field inestigations on the appearance of drug resistant population of trypanosome.
Bitew, M., Amedie, Y. and Abebe, A, (2011): Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in selected areas of Jabi Tehenan district, West Gojam of Amhara regional state, North western Ethiopia. Global Veterinaria, 5: 243-247.
Blood, D.C., Radostits, O.M. and Henderson, J.A., (1989): Disease caused by protozoa. A text book of the disease of cattle, pigs, goats and horses. 7th ed. Oxford: ELBS, PP: 1012- 1015.
Bourn, D., Reid, R., Rogers, D., Snow, W. and Wint, W. (2001): Environmental change and the autonomous control of tsetse and trypanosomosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Environmental Research Group Oxford, Oxford, UK. PP: 248.
Brightwell, R., Dransfield, R. D., Maudlin, I., Stevenson, P. and Shaw, A. (2001): Reality vs rhetoric - a survey and evaluation of tsetse control in East Kenya. Agric Human Values, 18:19-233.
Budd, L. T. (1999): DFID-funded tsetse and trypanosomiasis research and development since 1980. Vol. 2 Economic Analysis. Department for International Development (DFID), London, UK.
Cherenet, T., Sani, R.A., Speybroeck, N., Panandam, J.M., Nadzr, S. & Van den Bossche, P., 2006, ‘A comparative longitudinal study of bovine trypanosomiasis in tsetse-free and tsetse-infested zones of the Amhara region, northwest Ethiopia’, Veterinary Parasitology 140:251–258.
Codjia, V., Mulatu, W., Majiwa, P. A. O., d’Ieteren, G. D. M. and Peregrine, A. S. (1993):Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Ghibe valley, southwest Ethiopia. Occurrence of population of Trypanosoma congolense resistant to diminazine, isometamidium andhomidium. Acta Trop. 53: 151-163.
DACA (2006): standard veterinary Treatment Guidelines for veterinary practice 1Sted. Drug Administration and Control Authority of Ethiopia.
Dagnachew. S and Abebe. G., 2007. Studies on tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis in new settlementareas of Jawi and Quara districts of Amhara region northwest Ethiopia. In proceedings ofthe 29th meeting of the International Scientific Councilfor Trypanosomosis Research and Control (ISCTRC), Luanda, Angola, 1st -5thOctober 2007.
Dagnachew, S., Sangwan, A. K., Abebe, G. (2005): Epidemiology of Bovine Trypanosomosis in the Abay (Blue Nile) Basine Areas of North West Ethiopia. Revue. Elevl. Med. Vet .Pays trop.
Daya, T. and Abebe, G. (2008): Seasonal Dynamics of Tsetse and Trypanosomosis in selected sites of Southern Nation, Nationalities and Peoples regional State, Ethiopia. Ethiop.Vet J.,12(2): 77-92.
De La Rocque, S., Michel, J. F., Michel, V. and Cuisance, D. (2001b): Trypanosomosis epidemiology and control in West Africa: Epidemiological diversity of trypanosomosis at a local level. Newsl Integr Control Pathogenic Trypanosomes Vectors, 3:7-9.
Erkelens, A. M., Dwinger, R. D., Bedane, B., Slingenbergh, J. H. W., Wint, W. (2000): Selection of priority areas for tsetse control in Africa: a decision tool using GIS in Didessa valley, Ethiopia, as a pilot study. In: Animal Trypanosomosis: Diagnosis and Epidemiology. ISBN90-5782-065-x. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna, Austria, PP: 213-227.
Eth. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Government of Ethiopia (MoARD) (2004).Tsetse and trypanosomiasis prevention and control strategies. Amharic Version. October 2004 (Tikimt, 1997. Cal). Paper presented on Farming Tsetse Controlled Areas (FITCA), Ethiopia. Final Work Shop, December, 27- 28, 2004. Adama, Ethiopia.
FAO (1998): A field guide for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of African Animal Trypanosomiasis. Rome, Italy. Pp: 12-135.
FAO (2001): Integrating the sterile insect technique as a component of area wide tsetse and trypanosomosis intervention. PAAT, Technical and scientific series by Feldman. U, and Hendricks, J. FAO, Rome, PP: 56-68.
Feldmann, U. and Hendrichs, J. (2001): Integrating the sterile insect technique as a key component of area wide tsetse and trypanosomosis investigation. Vienna, Austria, 10: 42-56.
Ford, J., Makin, M.J. and Grimble, R.J. 1976. Trypanosomiasis control programme for Ethiopia, Ministry of Overseas Development, London, 12-29.
Gardiner, N. (1989). Recent study on the biology of T. vivax. Adv. Parasitol., 28: 230- 279.
Garoma, D. (2009). The prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis in Gari settlement area of East Wollega Zone. DVM Thesis Jimma University, FVM, Jimma, Ethiopia.
Getachew, A. (2005): Trypanosomosis in Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University, faculty of Veterinary Medicine. Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. J .Biol.sci.4(1):18-21; 75-121.
Gooding, R. H. & Krafsur, and E. S., (2005): Tsetse genetics: Contributions to biology, systematic, and control of tsetse flies. Annual Review of Entomology, 50: 101 - 123.
Habtamu, G. (2009), ‘Current status of tsetse transmitted trypanosomes in Jawi district of Amhara region, north-west Ethiopia’, DVM thesis, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Gondar University. Leak, S.G., 1996, ‘The contribution to the epidemiology and understanding tsetse transmitted trypanosomiasis’, PhD thesis, Universiteit Utrecht.
Hoare, C. A. (1972): The trypanosomes of mammals, Oxford: Blackwell scientific publications. Pp: 749.
Itard, J. (1989): African Animal Trypanosomioses. In: Manual of Tropical Veterinary Parasitology. 1st English edition. Published by C.A.B.I. UK, PP: 179-181.
Jordan, A. M. (1993): Tsetse flies (Glossinidae). Medical Insects and Arachnids (ed. by R. P. Lane & R. W. Crosskey) Chapman & Hall, London, PP: 333 – 388.
Kristjanson, P. M., Swallow, B.M., Rowlands, G. J., Krusska, R. L. and Leeuw, D., (1999): measuring the cost of African animal trypanosomosis, the potential benefit of control and returns to research. Agr. Sys., 59:79-98.
Langridge, P. W. (1976): A Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Survey of Ethiopia. Ministry of Overseas Development (UK) and Ministry of Agriculture of the Ethiopia. PP: 1-40.
Leak, S. D., (1999): Tsetse Biology and Ecology.The role in the Epidemiology and controlof trypanosomosis. CAB international. Wallingford (UK), PP: 21-26; 152-210.
Leak, S. G. A. and Mulatu, W., 1993.Advance of Glossina morsitans submorsitans and G. pallidipes along the Ghibe river system in south west Ethiopia. Act Trop., 55:91-95.
Lemecha, H. (1994): Trypanosomosis Research and Control in Ethiopia. An Overview. Proceedings of 8th Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Veterinary Association, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PP: 7-12.
Losos, J. E. (1986): Infectious of Tropical Disease of Domestic Animals. Pp:186.
Majiwa, P. A. O., Masake, R. A., Nantulya, V. M., Hamers, R. and Matthyssens, G. (1985): Trypanosoma (Nannomonas) congolense: identification of two karyotypic groups. European Molecular Biology Organization Journal4:3307–3313.
Marcotty, T., Simukoko, H., Berkvens, D., Vercruysse, J., Praet, N. & Van Den Bossche, P., 2008, ‘Evaluating the use of packed cell volume as an indicator of trypanosomal infections in cattle in eastern Zambia’, Preventive Veterinary Medicine 87, 288– 300.
Marquardt, W.C., Demaree, R.C. & Grieue, R.B., 2000, Parasitology and vector biology, 2nd edn., Academic Press, London.
Maudlin, I.A., Holmer, P.H. & Milor, M.A., 2004, The typanosomosis, Centre for Agricultural Bioscience International, Egham.
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development of the Government of Ethiopia (MoARD) (2004): Tsetse and trypanosomosis prevention and control strategies. Amharic version, Paper presented on Farming Tsetse Controlled Areas, Ethiopia. Final workshop, December, 27-28, 2004. Adama, Ethiopia. Unpublished workshop proceeding.
Miruk, A., Hagos, A., Yacob, H.T., Asnake, F. & Basu, A.K., 2008, ‘Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and trypanocidal drug sensitivity studies on Trypanosoma congolense in Wolyta and Dawero zones of southern Ethiopia’, Veterinary Parasitology 152, 141–147.
MoA (Ministry of Agricultural), 1995.Ethiopian ruminant livestock developmentstrategy. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Ministry of Agricultural, p.112-113.
MoA (Ministry of Agricultural), 1997.Livestock development policies in Eastern and Southern Africa. Proceedings of a seminar organized by CTA, OAU/IBAR and the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, Swaziland, 28 July-1 August. pp.216.
Morrison, W. L., Murray, M., and Mcintyre, W. I. M., (1981): Bovin trypanosmiasis in Diseses of Cattle in the Tropics. M. Ristic and I. McIntyre (Ed) Martinus Nyhoff Publishers, the Hague, PP: 469-497.
Mulligan, H. W. (1970): The African Trypanosomiases. George Allen and Unwin Ltd. London. PP: 950.
Murray, M. and Gray, A. R. (1984): Current situation in Animal Trypanosomiasis in Africa. In Riemann, HP. and Burridge, M. J. (ed) Impact of Diseases on Livestock Production in the Tropics. Elsevier Science Publishing Co. Inc., New York, USA.
Muturi KS. (1999:.Epidemiology of bovine Trypanosomosis in selected sites of the Southern rift valley of Ethiopia.MSc thesis, Addis Ababa University with Freie University, Berlin.
Nicholson, M.J. & Butterworth, M.H., 1986, A guide to scoring of zebu cattle, International Livestock Centre for Africa, Addis Ababa.
NTTICC (National Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Investigation and Control Centre) Annual Report on Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Survey, 2004. Bedelle, Ethiopia.
OIE (2005): Animal Disease Factsheets, The center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State, state University, Ames, IA. USA.
OIE, (2004): Tsetse transmitted trypanosomosis. In: Manual of diagnostic tests and vaccines for terresterial animals. World Organization for Animal Health. 5th Ed. Pp: 235-345.
Oloo, F. P., Langley, P.A., Luyimbazi, F., and Ogwal, L. M. (2000): Integration of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and auto sterilization let halite in the eradication of Glossina fuscipes Newst. (Diptera, Glossinida) in Buudma ISL and in Lake Victoria, Uganda. Pp: 311-314.
Paris, J., M. Murray and F. Mcodimba, (1982): A comparative evaluation of the parasitological technique currently available for the diagnosis of African Trypanosomosis in Cattle, Acta Trop, 39: 1-11.
PATTEC (2001): Pan Africa Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). Plan of action. June, 2001.
Peregrine, A. S. (1994): Chemotherapy and delivery systems: haemoparasites. Vet Parasitol, 54: 223- 248.
Radostits, O. M, Gay, C., Blood, D. C, Hinchclift, K. W. (2007): Veterinary Medicine, a Text Book of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Goats, Pigs and Horses. 10th ed., London, Harcourt Publishers’ Ltd. Pp: 1564-1569.
Radostits, O. M., Gay, C. C, Blood, D. C,and Hinchcliff, W. K. (2000): Veterinary Medicine. A textbook of the disease of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and horse, 9th ed. W.B. Saunders. Sankatoon, Canada. PP: 1329-1334; 1531-1548.
Robertson, H. (2004): Family Glossinidae (tsetse flies). Biodiversity explorer. Iziko, Museume of Cape Town, South Africa. 82: 95-97.
Rowlands, G. J., Mulatu, W., Authie, E., D’ ieteren, G. D. M., Leak, S. G. A., Nagda, S. M, and Pregrine, A. S. (1993): Epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis in the Ghibe Valley, South- West Ethiopia. Acta.Trop., 53: 135- 150.
Rowlands, G. S., W. Mulatu, E. Authie, S.G.A. Leak and A. Peregrine, (1995): Epidemiology of bovineTrypanosomosis in the Ghibe valley, South West Ethiopia. Acta Tropica, 53: 135-150.
Seifert, H. S. H. (1996): Tropical Animal Health. Kluwer Academic Publishers.The Netherlands 2nded. Pp:152-169.
Shereni, W. (1990): Strategic and tactical development in tstse control in Zinbabuwe. Insect. Sci. Applic., 11: 399-409.
Simukoko, H., T. Marcotty, J. Vercruysse andP. Van den Bossche, 2011. Bovine trypanosomiasis risk in an endemic area on the eastern plateau of Zambia. Research in Veterinary Science, 90: 51-54.
Slingenbergh, J. H. W. (1992): Consolidation of tsetse and trypanosomosis control in the upper Didessa valley. Consultancy report of the tsetse control specialist to the Fourth Livestock Development Project,FAO, and Rome. pp.255.
Smith B P(2009) Trypanosomosis. In: Large Animal Internal Medicine. 4th edn, pp 1160.
Solomon, M. & Fitta, G., 2010, ‘Survey on bovine trypanosomosis and its vector in Metekel and Awi zones of northwest Ethiopia’, Acta Tropica 117(2011), 146–151.
Soulsby, E. J. (1982): Helminthes, Arthropods, and protozoa of domestic animals 7th edition clows ltd. Beacles and London. Pp: 523-530.
SRVL (2006). Sodo Regional Veterinary Laboratory report.
Stephen, E. L. (1986): Trypanosomiasis. A veterinary perspective.Pergamon Press, Oxford, UK. Pp: 551.
Tadesse A, Tsegaye B (2010). Bovine trypanosomosis and its vectors in two districts of Bench Maji zone, South Western Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod., 42:1757–1762.
Taylor, K. & Authie, M–L. (2004): Pathogenesis of animal trypanosomiasis, in the trypanosomoses, edited by I. Maudlin, P.H. Holmes & M.A. Miles. Oxfordshire: CABI Publishing. Pp: 331-353.
Teka W., Terefe D. and Wondimu, A. (2012): Prevalence study of bovine trypanosomosis and tsetse density in selected villages of Arbaminch, Ethiopia.Journal of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, 4(3): PP: 36-41.
Tesfaye, M. (2002): Report of trypanosome infection rate, in G.m submoristans and G.tachnoides in Didessa valley from July 29 to September 26, 2002. Bedele, Ethiopia.
Thomas, C., Getachew, A., R. S. san, J. M. Panasam, S. Nadzr and P. Van Den Bosche (2005): A longitudinal study of bovine trypanosomosis in a tsetse free and tsetse infested zone of the Amhara region, North West Ethiopia. EVA. Journal. Pp: 64-74.
Thrusfield, M. V., (2005): Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd edition, Blackwell Publishing, Garsington road, Oxford, UK, PP: 233-250.
Uilenberg, G. (1998): A field guide for the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of african animal trypanosomosis. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. PP: 87-98.
Upadhyaya, A., (2005) Text of preventive Veterinary Medicine 1sted., International book distributing co.( publishing Division), Army printing press ,33 Nuhru Road, saddart contt. Lucknow-226002.
Urquhart, GM, Armour J, Duncan JL, Dunn AM, Jennings FW (1996). Veterinary parasitology 2nd edition.Black Well Science Ltd., London UK, pp. 212-219.:384-386.
Vale, G. A. (1993): Development of baits for tsetse flies (Diptera, Glossinidae) in Zimbabuwe. J. Med. Entomol., 30: 831-842.
Van den Bossche, P. and Mudenge, D. (1999): The effect of short-interval deltamethrin applications to control tsetse on the seroprevalence of babesiosis in cattle. Trop Anim Health Prod, 31(4):215-22.
Van den Bossche, P. and Rowlands, G. J. (2001): The relationship between the parasitological prevalence of trypanosome infections in cattle and helped average packed cell volume. Acta Trop., 78: 168- 170.
Vreysen, M., J. (2001): Principles of area wide integrated tsetse fly control using the sterile insect technique. Med. Trop., 61: 397-411.
Whitelaw, D.D., Gardiner, P.R., Murray, M. (1988). Extravascular foci of Trypanosoma vivax in goats: the central nervous system and aqueous humor of the eye aspotential sources of relapse infections after chemotherapy. Parasitology.7: 51-61.
Woo, P.T.K., 1970. Haematocrit centrifugation technique for the diagnosis of African trypanosomosis.Acta trop., 27: 384-386.
World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), 2009. African Animal Trypanosomiasis Miruk, A., Hagos, A., Yacob, H.T., Asnake, F. & Basu, A.K., 2008, ‘Prevalence of bovine trypanosomosis and trypanocidal drug sensitivity studies on Trypanosoma congolense in Wolyta and Dawero zones of southern Ethiopia’, Veterinary Parasitology 152, 141–147.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186