The Effect of Cooking and Fermentation on the Functional and Nutritional Properties of Walnut and Maize
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 332-342
Received: Apr. 4, 2015; Accepted: Apr. 17, 2015; Published: Apr. 27, 2015
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Authors
Mojisola Adenike Oyarekua, Department of Microbiology, Federal University Oye Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria
Emmanuel Olufemi Bankefa, Institute of Microbiology University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China
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Abstract
Walnuts locally called ‘asala’or ‘awusa’ are eaten after boiling and maize which is fermented in the production of gruels called ‘ogi’ a widely utilized complementary food, shows qualitative and quantitative deficiency in protein content. The objective of this work is to co-ferment raw maize and walnut and also cooked walnut and maize to get low cost infant complementary foods of improved nutritional quality which might address malnutrition in infants. The mixture was prepared by co-fermenting 300g cooked walnut with 700g raw maize w/w (CWM) for 72h at 30OC. After 72h each product was wet- milled, sieved and dried at 60oC. Resultant flour was analyzed for: Proximate composition, minerals, anti-nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids, sterols contents and consistency using standard methods. The pH of (RW/M) dropped more drastically from 6 to 5 at 12h to 72h than that of (CW/M). RW/M had higher values of ash (0.98), moisture (12.74), crude protein (10.72), crude fiber (4.63), ether extract (2.53), CHO (68.4) and energy (2824) than CWM. Cooking reduced the proximate composition. RWM was more enhanced in most amino acids, minerals, mystric, stearic, and linoleic acids. CW/M had more reduced values of oxalate, saponin, alkaloid, flavanoid and higher phytate. Phytin than RW/M. The values of total phenol in both samples were comparable. RW/M could serve as infant complementary food of improved nutritional quality. Bacillus pumilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Leuconostocmesenteroide and Saccharomyces cerevisiaewere isolated from the fermented foods.
Keywords
Maize, Walnut, Co-Fermentation, Nutritional Quality, Fatty Acids
To cite this article
Mojisola Adenike Oyarekua, Emmanuel Olufemi Bankefa, The Effect of Cooking and Fermentation on the Functional and Nutritional Properties of Walnut and Maize, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2015, pp. 332-342. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150403.21
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