Changing existing features of living beings or giving new features to them by changing the natural gene sequence through biotechnological methods is called “genetically modified organisms”, in short “GMO”. Nowadays, lots of food consumed is either totally genetically modified food or a type of food including food components produced by gene modification technology. Improving nutritive quality, extracting aminoacids as food additives and enzymes in microorganisms, increasing retention period and organeolepticquality, new planting methods, precocity, resistance against disease, stres, herbicide and viruses, better waste utilization, saving of soil, water and energy, creating new bioprocesses are the probable advantages of genetically modified organisms, whereas changes in food quality, genetic diversity threats, unfair competition between organic suppliers and traditional suppliers, noncompulsory awarness raising in some countries, food industry dominated only by a few big companies, biopiracy and consuming of natural resources by foreigners are among the probable disadvantages of genetically modified foods. Among the hesitations about GMO widely used and consumed all over the world, the most topical issue is the probable health risks caused by GMOs which are consumed as food. Through gene transfer, some features causing allergy and disease can be carried from other organism and as a consequence of this, there may be the risk of finding unexpected biochemical products in transgenic products. As uncertainities about GM foods continue, studies conducted in many countries have revealed that there are many differences among people’s information, attitude and behaviour toward this issue in various countries. Modified food is affected by factors such as education and knowledge level, risk perception, socioeconomic status, media, etc. Besides, level of income and occupation follow them. In the present compilation based on literature, it is aimed to summarize the facts related to GMO. For this reason, the probable risk factors for human health, consumer reaction, the pros and cons of GMOs stated by defining GM generally are explained in the study. With the present study aiming to reveal GM foods and their probable health risks for human, it is concluded that consumers accept the existence of biotechnologic applications but they are not familiar with these products and also consumers have great considerations about GMO produced by genetic modification and they display a negative attitude toward GM products.Consumer should be informed due to all these reasons. Media organs, therefore, have a significant role as the source of information and they will also contribute to raise awareness in society.
Gulcin Algan Ozkok,
Genetically Modified Foods and the Probable Risks on Human Health, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 3,
2015, pp. 356-363.
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