An Energiser with Herbal Extracts, Creatine and Collagen to Prevent Post-Exercise Fatigue
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, November 2015, Pages: 639-643
Received: Sep. 21, 2015; Accepted: Oct. 9, 2015; Published: Oct. 24, 2015
Views 3637      Downloads 101
Authors
Kwok-pui Fung, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Clara Bik-san Lau, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Ellie Suet-yee Pang, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
William King-fai Cheng, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Chun-kwok Wong, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; Department of Chemical Pathology, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Ping-chung Leung, Institute of Chinese Medicine, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Physical exercises are important for maintaining physical strength and general health state, particularly for the senior citizens. However, after strenuous exercises, the feeling of intense fatigue is also particularly common among the elderlies, who might be discouraged to persist on the physical trainings. Post exercise fatigue is in fact manifestations of “Oxidative Stress” resulting from the accumulation of metabolites produced during active muscular activities and micro damages. If the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) found in the skeletal muscles, blood and lipids, enhanced by the presence of free radicals during heavy exercises, can be reduced, “Oxidative Stress” could be alleviated. We intend to produce an “energizer”, that nor only help to decrease “Oxidative Stress”, but also provide essential nutritional support to the muscles as well as longer term joint space integrities. Verbascoside containing herb was chosen to be the antioxidant to release “Oxidative Stress”. Creatine was the nutritive agent for muscle repair and collagen (related to Glucosamine) was added to provide cartilage support. The “energizer” was put to a properly planned clinical trial involving healthy young men. The study was designed as a randomized, double blinded cross-over study. All participants randomly consumed the energizer, collagen powder or creatine monohydrate for 14 days with a wash-out period interval for at least on month. On day 15 the participants completed one bout of well calibrated motor-driven treadmill exercise. Monitoring consisted of heart rate, and blood samples for the measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and muscle soreness. Creatine Kinase was measured in the subsequent recovery days. Results showed that the “energizer” produced a decreasing trend in the metabolites of proteins, DNA and lipids, and muscle soreness significantly decreased and during the three recovery days, Creatine Kinase activity sharply decreased, compared with the taking of collagen or creatine alone. In conclusion, the positive result supports the expectation that the “energiser” could be safely used as an exercise supplement for the prevention of after exercise fatigue.
Keywords
Energiser, Verbascoside, Musculo-Skeletal Supplement
To cite this article
Kwok-pui Fung, Clara Bik-san Lau, Ellie Suet-yee Pang, William King-fai Cheng, Chun-kwok Wong, Ping-chung Leung, An Energiser with Herbal Extracts, Creatine and Collagen to Prevent Post-Exercise Fatigue, International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 639-643. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20150406.16
References
[1]
W. B. Cannon, The wisdom of the body, 1st ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1932.
[2]
M. Esler, J. Hastings, G. Lambert, D. Kaye, G. Jennings, D. R. Seals. The influence of aging on the human sympathetic nervous system and brain norepinephrine turnover. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2002, 282(3): R909-916.
[3]
J. R. Stratton, W. C. Levy, J. H. Caldwell, A. Jacobson, J. May, D. Matsuoka, et al. Effects of aging on cardiovascular responses to parasympathetic withdrawal. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003, 41(11): 2077-2083.
[4]
E. F. Binder, S. J. Birge, R. Spina, A. A. Ehsani, M. Brown, D. R. Sinacore, et al. Peak aerobic power is an important component of physical performance in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999, 54(7): M353-356.
[5]
J. Finaud, G. Lac, E. Filaire E. Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training. Sports Med. 2006, 36(4): 327-58.
[6]
K. Fisher-Wellman, R. J. Bloomer. Acute exercise and oxidative stress: a 30 year history. Dyn Med. 2009, 8:1.
[7]
A. L. Mark. Sympathetic dysregulation in heart failure: mechanisms and therapy. Clin Cardiol. 1995, 18(3 Suppl I): I3-8.
[8]
P. Montuschi, P. J. Barnes, L. J. Roberts. Isoprostanes: markers and mediators of oxidative stress. FASEB J. 2004, 18(15): 1791-1800.
[9]
Y. J. Chen, S. H. Wong, C. K. Wong, C. W. Lam, Y. J. Huang, P. M. Siu. The effect of a pre-exercise carbohydrate meal on immune responses to an endurance performance run. Br J Nutr. 2008, 100(6): 1260-1268.
[10]
Y. J. Chen, S. H. Wong, C. O. Chan, C. K. Wong, C. W. Lam, P. M. Siu. Effects of glycemic index meal and CHO-electrolyte drink on cytokine response and run performance in endurance athletes. J Sci Med Sport. 2009, 12(6): 697-703.
[11]
R. Jäger, M. Purpura, A. Shao, T. Inoue, R. B. Kreider. Analysis of the efficacy, safety, and regulatory status of novel forms of creatine. Amino Acids. 2011, 40(5): 1369-1383.
[12]
M. A. Tarnopolsky. Caffeine and creatine use in sport. Ann Nutr Metab. 2010, 57 (Suppl 2): 1-8.
[13]
D. R. Lucey, M. Clerici, G. M. Shearer. Type 1 and type 2 cytokine dysregulation in human infectious, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1996, 9(4): 532-562.
[14]
M. Lyall, M. Peakman, S. Wessely. A systematic review and critical evaluation of the immunology of chronic fatigue syndrome. J Psychosom Res. 2003, 55(2): 79-90.
[15]
G. G. Kuiper, J. G. Lemmen, B. Carlsson, J. C. Corton, S. H.Safe, P. T. van der Saag, et al. Interaction of estrogenic chemicals and phytoestrogens with estrogen receptor beta. Endocrinology. 1998, 139(10): 4252-4263.
[16]
A. Mestre-Alfaro, M. D. Ferrer, A. Sureda, P. Tauler, E. Martínez, M. M. Bibiloni, et al. Phytoestrogens enhance antioxidant enzymes after swimming exercise and modulate sex hormone plasma levels in female swimmers. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011, 111(9): 2281-2294.
[17]
H. Adlercreutz, C. Bannwart, K. Wähälä, T. Mäkelä, G Brunow, T. Hase, et al. Inhibition of human aromatase by mammalian lignans and isoflavonoid phytoestrogens. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1993, 44(2): 147-153.
[18]
L. Funesa, S. Fernández-Arroyoa, O. Laportaa, A. Ponsb, E. Rochec, A. Segura-Carreterod, et al. Correlation between plasma antioxidant capacity and verbascoside levels in rats after oral administration of lemon verbena extract. Food Chemistry. 2009, 117(4); 589–598.
[19]
H. S. Wong, F. H. Sun, Y. J Huang, S. Y. Pang, K. F. Cheng, P. C. Leung, et al. Effects of a herbal supplement to protect healthy males from oxidative stress and muscle micro-damage during eccentric exercise: A pilot study. International Journal of Food and Nutrition. (in press).
[20]
M. J. Liu, J. X. Li, H. Z. Guo, K. M. Lee, L. Qin, K. M. Chan. The effects of verbascoside on plasma lipid peroxidation level and erythrocyte membrane fluidity during immobilization in rabbits: a time course study. Life Sci. 2003, 73(7): 883-892.
[21]
F. Liao, R. L. Zheng, J. J. Gao, Z. J. Jia. Retardation of skeletal muscle fatigue by the two phenylpropanoid glycosides: verbascoside and martynoside from Pedicularis plicata maxim. Phytother Res. 1999, 13(7): 621-623.
[22]
K. D. Monahan, F. A. Dinenno, H. Tanaka, C. M. Clevenger, C. A. DeSouza, D. R. Seals. Regular aerobic exercise modulates age-associated declines in cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity in healthy men. J Physiol. 2000, 529(Pt 1): 263–271.
[23]
J. N. Morris, A. E. Hardman. Walking to health. Sports Med. 1997, 23(5): 306-332.
[24]
P. K. Stein, A. A. Ehsani, P. P. Domitrovich, R. E. Kleiger, J. N. Rottman. Effect of exercise training on heart rate variability in healthy older adults. Am Heart J. 1999, 138(3 Pt 1): 567-576.
[25]
N. Poolsup, C. Suthisisang, P. Channark, W. Kittikulsuth. Glucosamine long-term treatment and the progression of knee osteoarthritis: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Ann Pharmacother. 2005, 39(6): 1080-1087.
[26]
A. D. Sawitzke, H. Shi, M. F. Finco, D. D. Dunlop, C. L. Harris, N. G. Singer NG, et al. Clinical efficacy and safety of glucosamine, chondroitin sulphate, their combination, celecoxib or placebo taken to treat osteoarthritis of the knee: 2-year results from GAIT. Ann Rheum Dis. 2010, 69(8): 1459-1464.
[27]
K. Pavelká, J. Gatterová, M. Olejarová, S. Machacek, G. Giacovelli, L. C. Rovati. Glucosamine sulfate use and delay of progression of knee osteoarthritis: a 3-year, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Arch Intern Med. 2002, 162(18): 2113-2123.
[28]
M. I. Kingsley, L. P. Kilduff, J. McEneny, R. E. Dietzig, D. Benton. Phosphatidylserine supplementation and recovery following downhill running. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006, 38(9): 1617-1625.
[29]
D. M. High, E. T. Howley, B. D. Franks. The effects of static stretching and warm-up on prevention of delayed-onset muscle soreness. Res Q Exerc and Sport. 1989, 60(4): 357-361.
[30]
T. D. Noakes. Fluid replacement during exercise. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 1993, 21: 297-330.
[31]
G. A. Borg. Perceived exertion: a note on “history” and methods. Med Sci Sports. 1973, 5(2): 90-93.
[32]
P. M. Clarkson. Antioxidants and physical performance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 1995, 35(1-2): 131-141.
[33]
H. J. Kim, C. Jamart, L. Deldicque, G. L. An, Y. H. Lee, C. K. Kim, et al. Endoplasmic reticulum stress markers and ubiquitin-proteasome pathway activity in response to 200-km run. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011, 43(1): 18-25.
[34]
A. Valavanidis, T. Vlachogianni, C. Fiotakis. 8 – hydroxyl - 2’ - deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG): a critical biomarker of oxidative stress and carcinogenesis. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2009, 27(2): 120-139.
[35]
H. Kuipers. Exercise-induced muscle damage. Int J Sports Med. 1994, 15(3): 132-135.
[36]
R. Rahimi. Creatine supplementation decreases oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by a single bout of resistance exercise. J Strength Cond Res. 2011, 25(12): 3488-3455.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186