Effects of Dietary Protein Sources on the Progression of Renal Failure without Dialysis in Rats
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages: 23-32
Received: Aug. 29, 2013; Published: Sep. 30, 2013
Views 3475      Downloads 213
Nadia Saleh Al-Amoudi, Nutrition and Food Department. King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 3108 Jeddah 23435, Saudi Arabia
Article Tools
Follow on us
The quality and quantity of protein are essential factors that determine nutritional significance of a protein. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of several animal and plant proteins on the progression of renal failure in rats. Ninety male rats were allocated into nine groups and were fed with a basal diet containing different protein sources for 12 weeks. Two groups comprised of a negative control group and a positive control group (with induced renal failure) fed on the basal diet. Rats in the remaining seven groups were fed using different diets containing 10% protein derived from fish, meat, chicken, egg, soybean, lentil, and white bean. Biological, biochemical and histological studies were done at the end of the study. Protein content was highest for the chicken extract (87.36%), followed by meat (85.67%), egg (78.85%), and fish (78.55%). Body weight gain increased as food intake decreased in all groups other than the positive control group, and the food efficiency ratio paralleled food intake. Rats fed the fish protein diet had lower blood urea nitrogen (28.0 mg/dL), uric acid (3.5mg/dL) levels compared with the other groups. There were no significant differences in creatinine levels between rats fed the animal protein (fish and meat) or the plant protein (soy and white bean) diets. Histological studies revealed no abnormal renal features in rats fed the fish or soybean protein diets. Therefore, the results of the study suggest that a diet containing fish protein may delay the progression of chronic renal failure relative to other protein diets.
Animal Protein, Plant Protein, Rats, Renal Failure without Dialysis, Renal Function
To cite this article
Nadia Saleh Al-Amoudi, Effects of Dietary Protein Sources on the Progression of Renal Failure without Dialysis in Rats, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2013, pp. 23-32. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20130103.11
Mehrotra, R and Kopple, J. D.(2001): Nutritional management of maintenance dialysis patients: why aren’t we doing better? Ann Rev Nutr 21: 343-379.
Henderson, J.(2010): Dietary consideration in chronic kidney disease. Natural Medicine Journal 2 (9): 12-15.
Workeneh, B. T and Mitch, W. E.(2010): Review of muscle wasting associated with chronic kidney disease. Am J Clin Nutr 91: 11285-11325.
Barssotti, G.; Morelli. E.; Cupisti, A.; Bertoncini, P. and Giovanetti, S.(1991): A special, supplement "vegan" diet for nephritic patients. Am J Nephrol 11: 380-385.
Barssotti, G., Morelli. E., Cupisti, A., Meda, M., Dani, L. and Giovanetti S. (1996): A low-nitrogen low phosphorous vegan diet for patients with chronic renal failure. Nephron. 74: 390-394.
Anderson, J. W.; Blake, J. E.; Turner, J. and Smith, B. M.(1998): Effects of soy protein on renal function and protein urea in patient: With type 2 diabetes. Am Clin Nutr 68(6): 1347S-1353S.
Babji, A. S., Fatimah, S., Ghassem, M. and Abolhassani, Y. (2010) : Protein quality of selected edible animal and plant protein sources using rat bio-assay International Food Research Journal17: 303-308.
Endres,J.G.(2001):Soy protein products: ccharacteristics,nnutritional aaspects, and Utilization, AOAC Press, Champaign, chap. 5, 6. pp. 10-14.
Williams AJ, Walls J.(1987): Metabolic consequences of differing protein diets in experimental renal disease. Eur J Clin Invest 17:117–122.
Kontessis P, Jones S, Dodds R, Trevisan R,Nosadini R, Fioretto P, Borsato M, SacerdotiD, Di Viberti GC.(1990): Renal metabolic and hormonal responses to ingestion of animal and vegetable proteins. Kidney Int 38:136–144.
Kontessis PS, Bossinakou I, Sarika L, AliopoulouE, Papantonou A, Trevisan R, Roussi D,Stipsanelli K, Grigorakis S, Souvatzogˇlou A(1995):Renal metabolic and hormonal responses to proteins of different origin in normotensive,nonproteinuric type I diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 18:1233–1240.
Liang, X.M., Otani, H., Z, Q., Tone, Y., Fujii, R., Mune, M., Yukawa, S., Akizawa, T.(2007): Various dietary protein intakes and progression of Renal failure in spontaneously .Nephron Exp. Nephrol 105 : e98-e107.
Soroka N., Silverberga D.S., M. GreemlandcY. BirkdM. BlumaG. PeeraA. Iainaa(1998): Comparison of a Vegetable-Based(Soya) and an Animal-Based Low-Protein Diet in Predialysis Chronic Renal Failure Patients Nephron 79:173–180.
AOAC (2005): Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 18th ed., Washington, DC.
Campbell, J. A. (1963): Methodology of Protein Evaluation. RAG Nutr. Document R.10 Led. 37. June Meeting, New York.
Farombi, O. E. and Ekott, M.(2006): Curccumin atteruates gentamicin induced renal oxidative damage in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 44: 1443-1448.
Chapman, D. G.; Castilla, R. and Campbell, J. A. (1959): Evaluation of protein in food I:A method for the determination of protein efficiency ratio. Can. J. of Biochem. Physiol., 37: 679- 686.
Henry, R. J.(1974): Clinical Chemist. Principles and Techniques, 2nd Edition, Hagerstown (MD), Hareer, 1974; Row, PP: 882.
Fossati, P.; Prencipe, L. and Berti, G.(1980): Enzymatic colorimetric method of determination uric acid in serum. Clin Chem 26(2): 227-273.
Patton, C. H. and Crouch, S. R.(1977): Enzymatic colorimetric method to determine urea in serum. Anal Chem 49: 464-469.
Gornall, A. C.; Bardawill, C. J. and David, M. M.(1949): Determination of serum proteins by means of the biuret reaction. J Biol Chem 177: 756.
Doumas, B. T.; Watson, W. A. and Biggs. H. G.(1971): Albumin standard and measurement of serum albumin with bromocresol green. Clin Chem. 31: 87-92.
Carleton, H.(1976): Carlton’s Histopathological Technique. 4th Ed., London, Oxford University Paris, New York, Toronto.
Armitage, P. and Berry, G.(1987): Statistical Method in Medical Research. Blackwell, Oxford, UK. PP: 93-213.
Waller, R. A. and Duncan, D. B.(1969): A Bayes rule for the symmetric multiple comparisons problem. Am Sat Assoc. 64: 1484-1503.
Bernstein, A. M.; Trey-Zon, L. and Zhaoping, L.(2007): Are high-protein, vegetable. Based diets safe for kidney function? A review of the literature, Journal of the American Dietetic Association 107: 644-650.
El-Moselhy, S. M.(2006): Influence of some vegetable, spices and herbs on the health status of kidneys as investigated using the experimental animals. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Home Economics, Minufia University.
Johnson, W. J.; Hagge, W. H.; Wagoner, R. D.; Dinapolu, R. P. and RoseEyEar, J. W.(1972): Effects of urea loading in patients with far-advanced renal failure. Mayo Clin Proc 47: 21-29.
Deferrari, G.; Garibotto, G.; Robaudo, C.; Ghiggeri, G. M. and lix-Ianello, R.( 1981): Brain metabolism of amino acids and ammonia in-patients with chronic renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 20: 505-510.
Mitch, W. E.; Lietman, P. S. and Walser, M.(1977): Effects of oral neomycin and kanamycin in chronic renal failure: I. Urea metabolism. Kidney Int 11: 116-122.
Blumenkrantz, M. J.; Kopple, J. D.; Gutman, R. A.; Chan, Y. K.; Barbour, G. L.; Roberts, C.; Shen, F. H.; Gandhi, V. C.; Tucker, C. T.; Curtis, F. K. and Coburn, J. W.(1980): Methods for assessing nutritional status of patients with renal failure. Am J Clin Nutr 33: 1567-1585.
Kaysen, G. A.; Gambertoglio, J.; Jimenez, I.; Jones, H. and Hutchison, F. N.(1986): Effect of dietary protein intake on albumin homeostasis in nephrotic patients. Kidney Int 29: 572-577.
Mitch, W. E. and Walser, M.(1991): Nutritional therapy of the uremic patient, in The Kidney (4th ed), edited by RENNER BM, RECTOR FC, Philadelphia, Saunders, 1991, pp 2186-2222.
Givannetti, S. and Maggiore, Q.(1964): A low-nitrogen diet with proteins of high biological value for severe chronic uremia. Lancet 1: 1000-1003.
Coles, G. A.(1972): Body composition in chronic renal failure. Q. J. Med 41: 25-47.
Sugano, M., Ishiwaki, I. and Nakashima, K., (1984): Dietary protein-dependent modification of serum cholesterol levels in rats : significance of the arginine to lysine ratio. Ann.Nutr.Metab. 28 : 192-199.
Beg, Z.H. and Brewer, H.B. (1982): Modulation of rat liver 3-hydroxo-3-methylgltaryl coenzyme A reductase activity be reversible phosphorylation. Fed.Proc. 41 : 2634-2638.
Yahia, D.A., Madani, S., Prost, E., Prost, J., Bouchenak, M. and Beileville, J.(2003) : Tissue antioxidant status differ in spontaneously hypertensive rats Fed Fish protein or casein. J.Nutr133: 479-482.
Morris, M.C. (1994): Dietary fats and blood pressure. J.Cardiovasc.Risk. 1:21-30.
Sacks, F.M., Hebert, P., Appel, L.J., Borhani, N.O., Applegate, W.B., Cohen, J.D., Cutier, J.A., Kirchner, K.A., Kuller, L.H. and Roth, K.J. (1994): The effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase 1 of the trials of hypertension prevention. Trials of Hypertension Prevention Collaborative Research Group. J. Hypertens. 12:S23-S31.
Chen, H.W., Li, C.K., Chen, W.T., Wang, M.L. and Ou, C.C. (1996): Blood pressure-lowering effect of fish oil is independent of thromboxane A2 level in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids. 54:147-154.
Frenoux, J.M., Prost, E., Belleville, J. and Prost, J. (2001): A polyunsaturated fatty acid diet lowers blood pressure and improves antioxidant status in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J. Nutr. 131 : 39-45.
Mitch, W. E.(2000): Dietary therapy in uremia: The impact on nutrition and progressive renal failure without dialysis kidney int., 57, 75: S38 – S43.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186