Microbiological Characteristics and Mineral Content of Local Smoked Cheese Produced in Yemen
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 4, November 2013, Pages: 65-71
Received: Nov. 27, 2013;
Published: Dec. 20, 2013
Views 3099 Downloads 182
Habib M. Thabet, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, IBB University, IBB, Yemen
Qais A. Nogaim, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, IBB University, IBB, Yemen
Tarek A. Alazaze, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, IBB University, IBB, Yemen
Yusef Sarhan Alabadli, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, IBB University, IBB, Yemen
Saleh Ali Aon, Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, IBB University, IBB, Yemen
This study aimed to investigate the microbiological quality and mineral content of smoked cheese collected from different retail markets from Ibb and Taiz areas in Yemen. The microorganisms were determined as follows: Mesophilic bacteria, Proteolytic, Halotolerant, Coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, Yeast and Mold as well as the presence of Salmonella spp, Escherichia coli. Cheese made in Ibb and Taiz areas had significant differences (P <0.05) in mesophilic, proteolytic, halotolerant, Staphylococcus aureus microorganisms, yeast and mold. Salmonella spp was not detected. pH, NaCl, fat and moisture content were also analyzed There was no significant differences for chemical composition except in moisture content. Minerals including Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Pb were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrometry. The order levels of the metals in the Smoked cheese samples was determined to be Mn< Pb< Cd< Cu< Fe, with mean concentration 0.47, 0.53, 0.73, 1.56 and 7.84 µg/g, respectively. The investigation showed high microorganism counts, high levels of metals and poor quality of Smoked cheese, according to the Yemen Standardization (YSMO: 1556/1998).
Habib M. Thabet,
Qais A. Nogaim,
Tarek A. Alazaze,
Yusef Sarhan Alabadli,
Saleh Ali Aon,
Microbiological Characteristics and Mineral Content of Local Smoked Cheese Produced in Yemen, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 1, No. 4,
2013, pp. 65-71.
Al-Zoreky N. 1998, Isolationof Listeria monocytogenes from Smoked cheese. Journal King Saud University Agriculture Science 2, PP. 163-168.
Freitas A.C. and Malcata f.x.1999, Technological optimisation of Picante cheese using microbiological, chemical and physical criteria. Journal of Food Engineering, 41, pp. 163–170.
Maria K. Marios M. Panagiotis S. and Eleftherios H.D.P.2010, Prevalence and sources of cheese contamination with pathogens at farm and processing levels. Food Control, 21, PP. 805–815.
Ryser E.T. Public health concerns. In, 2001: Marth, E.H., Steele, J.L. (Eds.), Applied Dairy Microbiology, second ed. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY, pp. 397-546.
Vasavada P.C.1988, Pathogenic bacteria in milk e a review. Journal Dairy Science 71, 2809-2816.
West H.G. 2008, Food fears and raw-milk cheese. Appetite 51, 25-29.
Baylis C.L. 2009, Raw milk and raw milk cheeses as vehicles for infection by verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. International. Journal Dairy Technology 62, 293-307.
Donnelly C. 2005, The pasteurization dilemma. In: Kindstedt, P. (Ed.), American Farmstead Cheese: The Complete Guide to Making and Selling Artisan Cheeses. Chelsea Green Publishing Company, White River Junction, Vermont,pp. 173-196.
Johnson M.E. 2001, Cheese products. In: Marth, E.H., Steele, J.L. (Eds.), Applied Dairy Microbiology, second ed. Marcel Dekker Inc., New York, NY, pp. 345-384.
Knight A.J.W.M.R, Todd E.C.D and Bourquin L.D .2008, Listeria in raw mild soft cheese: a case study of risk governance in the United States using the IRGC Framework. In: Renn, O., Walker, K. (Eds.), Global Risk Governance. Springer,Berlin and Dordrecht, pp. 179-220.
Callon C. Gilbert F. B Cremoux R. D and Montel M. C. 2008, Application of variable number of tandem repeat analysis to determine the origin of S. aureus contamination from milk to cheese in goat cheese farms. Food Control 19, 143–150.
Ayar A. Durmus-Sert D. and Akın N. 2009, The trace metal levels in milk and dairy products consumed in middle Anatolia, Turkey. Environmental Monitoring Assessment. pp. 152 1-12.
McCally M. 2002, Human health and heavy metals exposure. The Environment and Human Health (Chapter 4).
Feeley R.M. Criner P.E. Murphy E.W. and Toefer E.W.1972, Major mineral elements in dairy products. Journal of dairy Research 61, 505–510.
Moreno-Rojas R. Amaro-Lopez M. and Zuerera-Cosano G. 1994, Copper, iron and zinc variations in Manchego-type cheese during the traditional cheese-making process. Food Chemistry 49, 67–72.
Yuzbası N. Sezgin E. Yıldırım M. and Yıldırım N. 2003, Survey of lead, cadmium, iron, copper and zinc in Kasar cheese. Food Chemistry 20, 464–469.
Samuel M. Eric L. Frédéric G. Nadia C. and Pierre-Marie B. 2011, Trace metals in raw cows’ milk and assessment of transfer to Comté cheese. Food Chemistry 129, 7–12.
Tripathi R.M. Raghunath R. Sastry V.N. and Krishnamoorthy T.M. 1999, Daily intake of heavy metals by infants through milk and milk products. Science total Environment .227, 229–235.
APHA. 2001, In: Frances, P.D., Keith, I. (Eds.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. APHA,Washington, DC.
Hatzikamari M. Litopoulou-Tzanetaki E. and Tzanetakis N. 1999, Microbiological characteristics of Anevato: a traditional Greek cheese. Journal of Applied Microbiology 87, 595–601.
Marth E.H. 1978, Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
APHA.1993, In: Marshall, R.T. (Ed.), Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products. APHA, Washington, DC
Kosikowi F.Y. and Mistry V.V. 1997, Cheese and Fermented Milk Foods, vol. 2.Amazon.Com
Determination of salt content-Standard 12B.1988. Brussels: International Dairy Federation.
Gajan R.J. and Larry D. 1972, Determination of lead in fish by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and by polarography. Development of methods. Journal Association of Analytic Chemistry 55 127–130.
Gijs Du. L. Filip M.G. and TackM G. V. 2003, Performance of selected destruction methods for the determination of heavy metals in reed plants. (Phragmites australis) Analytica Chimica Acta 497, 191–198.
Manolopoulou E. Sarantinopolos P. Zoidou E. Aktypis A. Moschopoulou E. Kandarakis I.G. Anifantakis E.M. 2003, Evolution of microbial populations during traditional Feta cheese manufacture and ripening. International Journal Food Microbiology 82, 153–161.
Park Y.W. Kalantari A. and Frank J.F. 2004, Changes in the microflora of commercial soft goat milk cheese during refrigerated and frozenstorage. Small Raiment Research. 53, 61–66.
Osman A. Ozkan A. and Suleyman O. 2005, A survey on the microbiological quality of Carra,a traditional Turkish cheese. Journal of Food Engineering 66, 401–404.
Francisco J.D, José G.C. Ramón C and Rosario R. 2012, Changes in microbiology, proteolysis, texture and sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses treated by high-pressure at different stages of maturation. Food Science and Technology. 48, 268-275.
Beresford T P, Fitzsimons N. A. Brennan N. L. and Cogan T. M. 2001, Recent advances in cheese microbio. International Dairy Journal, 11, 259–274.
Brooks J.C. Martinez B. Stratton J. Bianchini A. Krokstromb R. and Hutkins R. 2012, Survey of raw milk cheeses for microbiological quality and prevalence of foodborne pathogens. Food Microbiology, 1-5.
Abdulmalek M.A. and Abdulaziz A.A. 2011, Microbiological Changes and Determination of Some Chemical Characteristics for Local Yemeni Cheese. Jordan Journal of Biology Science 4, PP. 93 – 100.
European Council Directive.1992. Laying down the health rules for the production and placing on the market of raw milk, heat-treated milk and milk-based products. European Council Directive 92/46/EEC. Official Journal of the European Communities, L268, 14.9.1992, p. 1.
Seran T. Sahsene A. Cem Sen. Pelin A. 2006, Determination of microbiological contamination sources during Turkish white cheese production. Journal of Food Control 17, 856-861.
Tamagnini L.M. de Sousa G.B. Gonz´alez R.D. and Buddeb C.E. 2006, Microbiological characteristics of Crottin goat cheese made in different seasons. Small Raiment Research 66, 175-180.
Fox L. K. Gershman M. Hancock D.D. and Hutton C.T. 1991, Fomites and reservoirs of Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections: The effect of milking time hygiene. Cornell Veterinary 81, 183–193.
Little C, L, Rhoades J.R. Sagoo S. K. Harris J. Greenwood, Mithani V. 2008, Microbial quality of retail cheese made from raw, thermised or pasteurized milk in UK. Food Microbiology 25, 304–312.
Coni E. Bocca A. Coppolelli P. Caroli S. Cavallucci C. Trabalza Marinucci M. 1996, Minor and trace element content in sheep and goat milk and dairy products. Food Chemistry. 57, 253–260.
Park Y.W. 2000, Comparison of mineral and cholesterol composition of different commercial goat milk products manufactured in USA. Small Raiment Research 37, 115–124.
Magda M. A. Madeha N.A. Safaa Y.Q. and Nagwa M. El-Sawi. 2010, Mineral content and microbiological examination of some white cheese in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during summer 2008. Food and Chemical Toxicology 48, 3031–3034.
Dilek B. Yasemin B.K. and Gokhan U. 2012, Determination of some traces metal levels in cheese samples packaged in plastic and tin containers by ICP-OES after dry, wet and microwave digestion. Food and Chemical Toxicology 49, 202–207.
Orak H. Altun and M. Ercag E. 2005, Survey of heavy metals in Turkish white cheese. Italian Journal Food Science 17, 95–100.
CE Regulation 2001/466: Off. J Eur Comm. 2001. L 039, 21.
Goyer R.A. Clarkson T.W. 1996, Toxic effects of metals. In: Klaasen, Curtis D. (Ed.),Caserett and Doull’s Toxicology: The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th edition.McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ereifej K.I. and Gharaibeh S.H. 1993, The levels of cadmium, nickel, manganese, lead,zinc, iron, tin, copper and arsenic in the brined canned Jordanian cheese. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 197, 123–126.
Mendil D. 2006, Mineral and trace metal levels in some cheese collected from Turkey. Food Chemistry, 96, 532–537.