Isolation and Characterization of Pectin Extracted from Lemon Pomace during Ripening
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 30-35
Received: Feb. 9, 2014; Published: Mar. 20, 2014
Views 4748      Downloads 941
A. K. M. Azad, Department of Food Processing & Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
M. A. Ali, Department of Agro-processing, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh
Mst. Sorifa Akter, Department of Food Science and Technology, State University of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh
Md. Jiaur Rahman, Department of Food Processing & Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
Maruf Ahmed, Department of Food Processing & Preservation, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh
Article Tools
Follow on us
The research was conducted to find out the various extraction conditions of pectin from lemon pomace under different of solvents (6M HCl, 1N H2SO4, 1N HNO3, 6.2g/100g citric acid, 1N acetic acid, combination with acetic acid and ammonium oxalate and distilled water), temperatures (70, 80, 90 and 1000C), times (30, 60, 90 and 120 min) and maturity stages (premature, mature and over ripen). Preliminary results showed that optimum conditions for extraction of pectin were found at a temperature of 1000C by 60 min on the basis of pectin yield and equivalent weight extracted with distilled water. Pectin extracted with distilled water was characterized in terms of yield, moisture content, ash content, equivalent weight, methoxyl content, degree of esterification and neutral sugar contents. There were significant differences (p< 0.05) in yields, equivalent weights, degree of esterifications and neutral sugars among the lemon pomace pectin extracted from premature, mature and over ripen maturity stages. The degree of esterification and methoxyl contents were varying depending upon the maturity stages. Therefore, the premature lemon pomace can be considered as rich source of pectin in terms of yield, methoxyl content, degree of esterification and anhydrouronic acid content.
Lemon Pomace, Pectin, Maturity Stages, Solvents, Temperature
To cite this article
A. K. M. Azad, M. A. Ali, Mst. Sorifa Akter, Md. Jiaur Rahman, Maruf Ahmed, Isolation and Characterization of Pectin Extracted from Lemon Pomace during Ripening, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 30-35. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20140202.12
AOAC (1995). Official Methods of Analysis, vol. 37., 16th ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, pp. 1–10
AOAC (1975). Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry, Washington DC. pp 450-451, 520-521.
BBS (2010). Yearbook of Agriculture Statistics, 2009-2010.
Braddock RJ. (2004). Importance of byproducts to citrus juice processing. Fruit Process, 14: 310-313.
Bartley JM, Knee M. (1981). Composition and metabolism of cell wall polysaccharides in ripening fruits, in: Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables, eds., J. Friend and M.J.C. Rhodes, New York: Academic Press, pp. 133-148.
Chakraborty A, Ra S. (2011). Development of a Process for the Extraction of Pectin from Citrus Fruit Wastes viz. Lime Peel, Spent guava extract, Apple pomace etc International Journal of Food Safety, 13, 391-397.
Constenla D, Lozano JE. (2003). Kinetic model of pectin demethylation Latin American Applied Research, 33, 91-96.
FAO (1969). Nutrition meetings of the FAO, p. 133.
Food Chemical Codex. IV monographs. (1996). Washington DC: National Academy Press. p. 283.
Georgiv Y, Ognyanov M, Kussovski V, Kratchanova M. (2012). Isolation, characterization and modification of citrus pectins. Jounal of BioScience and Biotechnology, 1: 223-233.
Golovchenko VV, Ovoda RG, Shashkov AS, Odovov YS. (2002). Studies of the pectic polysaccharide from duckweed Lemna minor L. Phytochemicals, 60: 89-97.
Hamapitour MS. Majidi SM. Abdi M, Farbodnia. (2004). Potential for industrial utilization of citrus by products. CHISA 16th International Congress of Chemical and Process Engineering 62: 215-223.
Hwang J, Pyun YR, Kokini, JI. (1993). Sidechanins of pectins: Some thoughts on their role in plant cell walls. Food Hydrocolloids, 7: 39-53.
Iglesias MI, Lozano JE. (2004). Extraction and characterization of sunflower pectin. Journal of Food Engineering, 62: 215-223.
Ismail NSM, Ramli N, Hani NM, Meon Z. (2012). Extraction and characterization of pectin from dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) using various extraction conditions. Sains Malaysiana, 41: 41-45.
Kalapathy U, Proctor A. (2001). Effect of acid extraction of pectins from plant material by different pH. Carbohydrate Polymer, 43: 62-69.
Koubala BB, Kansci G, Mbome LI, Crépeau MJ, Thibault JF, Ralet MC. (2008). Effect of extraction conditions on some physicochemical characteristics of pectins from "Améliorée" and "Mango" peels. Food Hydrocolloids, 22: 1345-1351.
Koubala BB, Mbome LI, Kansci G, Tchouanguep Mbiapo F, Crepeau MJ, Thibault JF, Ralet. M.C., (2008). Physicochemical properties of pectins from ambarella peels (Spondias cytherea) obtained using different extraction conditions. Food Chemistry, 106: 1202–1207
Kumar A, Chauhan, GS. (2010). Extraction and characterization of pectin from apple pomace and its evaluation as lipase (steapsin) inhibitor. Carbohydrate Polymer, 82: 454-459.
Levigne S, Ralet, MC. Thibault, JF. (2002). Characterisation of pectins extracted from fresh sugar beet under different conditions using an experimental design. Carbohydrate Polymer, 49: 145-153.
Liu Y, Shi J, Langrish TAG. (2006). Water-based extraction of pectin from flavedo and albedo of orange peels. Chemical Engineering Journal, 120: 203-209.
Madhav A, Pushpalatha PB. (2002). Characterization of pectin extracted from different fruit wastes. Journal of Tropical Agriculture, 40: 53-55.
Masmoudi M, Besbes S, Abbes F, Robert C, Paquot M, Blecker C, Attia H. (2010). Pectin extraction from lemon by-product with acidified date juice: Effect of extraction conditions on chemical composition of pectins. Food Bioprocess Technology, DOI 10.100/s 11947-010-0344-2
Matora VA, Korshunova VE, Shkodina OG, Zhemerichkin DA, Ptitchikina NM, Morris ER. (1995). The application of bacterial enzymes extraction of pectin from pumpkin and sugar beet. Food Hydrocolloids, 9: 43-46.
Miller GL. (1959). Use of dinitrosalicylic acid reagent for determination of reducing sugar. Analytical Chemistry, 31: 426-428.
Mohamed S, Hasan Z. (1995). Extraction and characterization of pectin from various tropical agrowastes. ASEAN Food Journal, 2: 43-50.
Mollea C, Chiampo F, Conti R. (2008). Extraction and Characterization of pectin from cocoa husks: A preliminary study. Food Chemistry, 107: 1353-1356.
Muhamadzadeh J, Sadghi-Mahoonak AR, Yaghbani M, Aalam M. (2010). Extraction of Pectin from Sunflower Head Residues of Selected Iranian Caltivers. World Applied Science Journal, 8: 21-24.
Oosterveld A, Beldman G, Searle-van Leeuwen MJF, Voragen AGJ. (2000). Effect of enzymatic deacetylation on gelation of sugar beet pectin in the presence of calcium. Carbohydrate Polymer, 43: 249–256.
Owens HS, McCready RM, Shepard AD, Schultz TH, Pippen EL, Swenson HA, Miers JC, Erlandsen RF, Maclay, W.D., (1952). Methods used at Western Regional Research Laboratory for extraction of pectic materials. USDA Bur Agric Ind Chem, p. 9.
Panouille M, Thibault JF, Bonnin E. (2006). Cellulase and protease preparations can extract pectins from various plants byproducts. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 54: 8926–8935.
Pathak L, Chang KC, Brown G. (1988). Isolation and characterization of pectin in sugar-beet pulp. Journal of Food Science, 53: 830-833.
Ramli N, Asmawati (2011). Effect of ammonium oxalate and acetic acid at several extraction time and pH on some physicochemical properties of pectin from cocoa husk (Theobroma cacao). African journal of Food Science, 5: 790-798.
Redgwell RJ, MacRae E, Hallett I, Fischer M, Perry J, Harker R. (1997). In vivo and in vitro swelling of cell walls during fruit ripening Planta, 203: 162-173.
Ranganna S. (1995). Hand book of analysis and quality control for fruits and vegetable products (2nd Ed.). New Delhi: McGraw Hill publishing Co. Ltd. pp. 33-43.
Rha HJ, Bae IY, Lee S, Yoo SH, Chang PS, Lee HG. (2011). Enhancement of anti-radical activity of pectin from apple pomace by hydroxamation. Food Hydrocolloids, 25: 545–548.
Rombouts FM, Thibault JF. (1986). Feruloyated pectic substances from sugar beet pulp. Carbohydrate Research, 154c: 177-188.
Sirisakulwat S, Nagel A, Sruamsiri P, Carle R, Neidhart S. (2008). Yield and quality of pectins extractable from the peels of Thai mango cultivars depending on fruit ripeness. Journal of Agricultural Food Chemistry, 56: 10727–10738.
Sotanaphun U, Chaidedgumjorn A, Kitcharoen N, Satiraphan M, Asavapichayont P, Srianmornsak P. (2012). Preparation of pectin from peel of Citrus maxima. Silpakorn University of Science and Technology Journal, 6: 42-48.
Sundar Raj AA, Rubila S, Jayabalan R, Ranganathan TV. (2012).A review on pectin: Chemistry due to general properties of pectin and pharmaceutical uses. Scientific reports, 1: 2, 1-4.
Tsoga A, Richardson RK, Morris ER. (2004). Role of cosolutes in gelation of high methoxy pectin. Part 1. Comparison of sugars and polyols. Food Hydrocolloids, 18: 907-919.
Turquois T, Rinaudo M, Taravel FR, Heyraud A. (1999). Extraction of highly gelling pectic substances from sugar beet pulp and potato pulp: Influence of extrinsic parameters on their gelling properties. Food Hydrocolloids, 13: 255-262.
Yapo BM, Robert C, Etienne I, Wathelet B, Paquot M. (2007). Effect of extractions on the yield, purity and surface properties of sugar beet pulp pectin extracts. Food chemistry, 100: 1356-1364.
Yeoh S, Shi J, Langrish, TAG. (2008). Comparisons between different techniques for water-based extraction of pectin from orange peels. Desalination, 218: 229-237.
Zhang C, Taihua MU. 2011. Optimisation of pectin extraction from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Convolvulaceae) residues with disodium phosphate solution by response surface method. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 46: 11, 2274–2280.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186