Detection and Extent of Extraneous Water and Adulteration in Milk Consumed at Hyderabad, Pakistan
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 2, March 2014, Pages: 47-52
Accepted: Apr. 24, 2014;
Published: Apr. 30, 2014
Views 4921 Downloads 412
Ghulam Shabir Barham, Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Muhammad Khaskheli, Department of Animal Products Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Aijaz Hussain Soomro, Institute of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani, Department of Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Pakistan
This study was designed to screen the various adulterants in the market milk sold in the vicinity of Hyderabad district of Sindh province, Pakistan during the year 2013. A total of 100 milk samples were collected, each of twenty (n= 20) from milk producers (MP), milk collectors (MC), middlemen (MM), processors (P) and dairy shops (DS), were examined for various adulterants. Among these adulterants water (91%) was found in majority of milk samples, followed by detergent (41%), cane sugar (31%), starch (27%), rice flour (24%), formalin (20%), sodium chloride and skimmed milk powder (19%), urea and hydrogen peroxide (15%), ammonium sulfate (13%), vegetable oil and boric acid (12%), caustic soda (11%), glucose (10%), arrowroot (9%), hypochlorite (5%), salicylic acid (4%) and sorbitol (3%) consumed at the vicinity of Hyderabad district of Sindh, Pakistan. Freezing point of 80% milk samples of MP, 90% of MC, 95% of MM, 90% of P and 100% of DS appeared towards 0 oC rather than that of control milk, and assumed to be adulterated with extraneous water. The averaged extent of water in milk sold by MC remarkably higher than that of other milk marketing channels, but statistically non-significant (P>0.05) with all milk intermediaries; MP, MC, P and DS, except MM in which the extent of water was found to be significantly (P<0.05) lower than MC. The risk of adulteration at DS, MM, MC and P was found non-significant (P>0.05) with each other, but significantly (P<0.05) higher than MP.
Ghulam Shabir Barham,
Aijaz Hussain Soomro,
Zaheer Ahmed Nizamani,
Detection and Extent of Extraneous Water and Adulteration in Milk Consumed at Hyderabad, Pakistan, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 47-52.
Neumann, C.G., Harris, D.M. and Rogers, L.M. (2002). Contribution of animal source foods in improving diet quality and function in children in the developing world. Nutrition Research, 22, 193-220.
Hoppe, C., Molgaard, C. and Michelson, K.F. (2006). Cow's milk and linear growth in industrialized and developing countries. Annual Review of Nutrition, 26, 131-173.
Tipu, M.Y., Altaf, I., Ashfaq, M. and Siddiqui, S. (2007). Introduction. In: Proceedings of the workshop on monitoring of chemical adulterants and hygienic status of market milk. Lahore, Pakistan: WTO-Quality Control Laboratory, (pp. 7-39).
Javaid, S.B., Gadahi, J.A., Khaskheli, M., Bhutto, M.B., Kumbher, S. and Panhwar, A.H. (2009). Physical and chemical quality of market milk sold at Tandojam. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 29 (1): 27-31.
Naz, W. (2000). Subject: The dairy sector. http://www. Pakistaneconomist.com. Accessed Feb. 2011.
Fakhar, H. and Law Walker, F.G. (2006). The white revolution-dhoodh darya. Pakistan Dairy Development Company, (pp. 72).
Tariq, M.A. (2001). Subject: A close look at dietary patterns http://www.dawn.com/2001/11/05/ebr13. Htm. Accessed Feb, 2011.
Walker, G.P., Dunshea, F.R. and Doyle, P.T. (2004). Effects of nutrition and management on the production and composition of milk fat and protein. Australian Journal of Agriculture Research, (55): 1009-1028.
Haasnoot, W., Smits, N.G., Voncken, A.E.K. and Bremer, M.G. (2004). Fast biosensor immunoassays for the detection of cows’ milk in the milk of ewes and goats. Journal of Dairy Research, 71, 322–329.
Beall, D.P, and Scofield, R.H. (1995). Milk-alkali syndrome associated with Calcium carbonate consumption. Reports of seven patients with parathyroid hormone levels and an estimate of prevalence among patients hospitalized with hypocalcaemia. Medicine, 74 (2): 89-96.
Rideout, T.C., Liu, Q., Wood, P. and Fan, M.Z. (2008). Nutrient utilization and intestinal fermentation are differentially affected by the consumption of resistant starch varieties and conventional fibers in pigs, British Journal of Nutrition, 99, 984-92.
Ayub, M., Ahmed, Q., Abbas, M., Qazi, I.M., & Hattak, I.A. (2007). Composition and adulteration analysis of milk samples, Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 23 (4): 1127-1130.
Gwin, M.C., Lienert, G. and Kennedy, J. (2009). Formaldehyde exposure and asthma in children. A systematic review. Environment Health Perspective, 118, 313-317.
See, A.S., Salleh, A.B., Bakar, F.A., Yusof, N.A., Abdulamir, A.S. and Heng, L.Y. (2010). Risk and health effect of boric acid. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 7, 620-627.
Mota, F.J.M, Implvo, F. Cunha, S.C. Beatriz, M. and Oliveira, P.P. (2003). Optimization of extraction procedures for analysis of benzoic and sorbic acids in foodstuffs. Food Chemistry, 3 (82), 469-473.
Saad, B., Bari, M.F. Saleh, M.I. Ahmad K. and Talib, M.K.M. (2005). Simultaneous determination of preservatives in food stuffs using HPLC. Journal of Chromatography Analysis, (1073), 393.
Li, Z., Wu, L.L. Wang, Y.P. Liu, A.M Zou, C.C and Zhao, Z.Y. (2009). Melamine contaminated milk products induced urinary tract calculi in children. World Journal of Pediatrics, 5 (1), 31-35.
Gale, F., & Hu, D. (2007). Supply chain issues in China’s milk adulteration incident. Economic Research Service U. S. Department of Agriculture Washington, DC.
Khaskheli, M. (2010). Dairy Laboratory Manual. Department Animal Products Technology, Faculty Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, (pp.38).
AOAC, (2000). Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Inc. Gaithersburg, U.S.A.
Butt, M.-Y.M. (2011). Seminar on Milk Anti-adulteration policy Policy Draft: International executive summary dairy report, (IFCN) Pak. Lahore.
Nida, S., Soomro, A.H. Sheikh, S.A. and Khaskheli, M. (2013). Extent of water adulteration and its influence on physical characteristics of market milk. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12 (2): 178-181.
Meredith, P., Williams, P., Zampa, N., Garry, E., & Ouattara, G. (2007). The effect of raw milk storage conditions on freezing point, pH and impedance. Advance Instruments, INC., (pp: 1-7).
Bhatt, S.R., Singh, A., & Bhatt, S.M. (2008). Assessment of synthetic milk exposure to children of selected population in Uttar Pradesh, India. Indian Journal of Research, 7, 22-34.
Zia, U. (2007). Improved market access and smallholder dairy farmer participation for sustainable dairy development. Consultancy Report CFC/FIGMDP/ 16FT. Lessons Learned Study. Islamabad, Pakistan.
Zia, U. (2006). Analysis of milk marketing chain, Pakistan. FAO. Food Laws Manual. 2006.
Bhatti, M.Y. (2010). Formalin in milk consultancy report of Lahore High court. Free News alerts sums’ PT to 9900.
Manish, M.P., Singhal, R.S. and Kulkarni, P.R. (2000). An approach to the detection of synthetic milk in dairy milk, 1. Detection of urea. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 53(3): 987-91.
Lateef, M., Faraz, A. Mustafa, M.I., Akhtar, P. and Bashir, M.K. (2009). Detection of adulterants and chemical composition of milk supplied to canteens of various hospitals in Faisalabad city. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, (9):139-142.
Singhal, R.S., Kulkarni, P.R. and Rege, D.V. (1997). Handbook of Indices of food quality and authenticity Cambridge England Wood Head Publishing Limited, p.168- 174.
Wadekar, S. B. and Menkudale, G.V. (2011). Physico-chemical quality of market milk in Nanded town. Vision Research Review. I (I): p.27.
Afzal, A., Mahmood, M.S., Hussain, I., & Akhtar, M. (2011). Adulteration and microbiological quality of milk. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10 (12): 1195-1202.
Ibtisam, E., El- Zubeir, M. and El- Owni, O.A.O. (2009). Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria associated with raw milk contaminated by chemical preservatives. World Journal of Dairy and Food Science, 4 (1): 65-69.
Fertig, C.C., Podczeck, F., Jee, R.D. and Smith, M.R. (2004). European Journal of Pharmacology Science, 2, 155.
Pitty, (2011). 69 PC milk samples fail quality test some contain detergents. A national survey on milk adulteration. Conducted by Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. Reported by PTI.
Sinha, K. (2012). 70% of milk in Delhi, country is adulterated consultancy Report http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/topic/Food-Safety-Standards-Authority-of- India.
Goswami, T.K., & Gupta, S.K. (2008). Detection of dilution of milk with the help of glass transition temperature by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). African Journal of Food Science, 2, 7-10.
Yildiz, A., Erdogan, S., Saydut, A., & Hamamci, C. (2012). High-Performance Liquid Chromatography analysis and assessment of benzoic acid in yogurt, ayran, and cheese in Turkey. Food Analytical Methods. (5): 591–595.
Sanjeevani, B.W., Chavan, B.R. and Menkudale, G.V. (2011). Survey on adulteration of the milk received from Government milk scheme in banded town. Journal of International link Research Analysis, 1 (4): 32-35.