Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional, Phytochemical and Microbiological Quality of Three Pepper Varieties
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 3, May 2014, Pages: 74-80
Accepted: May 15, 2014;
Published: May 30, 2014
Views 3154 Downloads 408
Christine Emmanuel-Ikpeme, Biochemistry Department, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Peters Henry, Biochemistry Department, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
Orim Augustine Okiri, Biochemistry Department, University of Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
The study investigated the comparative evaluation of nutritional, phytochemical, and microbiological quality of three pepper varieties (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum genus, and Capsicum frutescens). Three pepper varieties were purchased fresh from local market in Calabar, Cross River State. The samples were washed with distilled water and thinly sliced, (diameter of 1.0±0.1cm and thickness of 3-4mm), and then treated with chlorine concentrated solution. These samples were oven dried at temperature of 60OC for 24 hours. The samples were ground with a woring blender and stored in air-tight container. The result of the analysis showed that the proximate composition of Capsicum genus was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens in moisture and carbohydrate contents. Capsicum annuum was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum genus and Capsicum frutescens in fat, insoluble and soluble fibre contents. Capsicum frutescens was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum genus in protein and ash contents. Vitamin composition showed that Capsicum annuum was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum genus and Capsicum frutescens in vitamin C, vitamin A, vitamin E, niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, and vitamin K. Mineral composition showed that Capsicum annuum was significantly (p<0.05) higher Capsicum frutescens and Capsicum genus in calcium, sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, zinc, and nickel contents. Capsicum genus was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens in potassium, iron and cobalt contents. Phytochemical composition showed that Capsicum annuum was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum genus and Capsicum frutescens in tannins, flavonoid, saponin, terpenoid, and carotenoid contents. Capsicum genus was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens in alkaloid, phenolic compound, glycoside, and limonoid contents. Capsicum frutescens was significantly (p<0.05) higher than Capsicum genus and Capsicum annuum in anthraquinone contents. Aspergillus spp and Staphylococcus spp in Capsicum annum, Capsicum genus, and Capsicum frutescens were less than 10% and 100%. Escherichia coli and salmonella in these pepper varieties were not detected or absent. The result of this analysis revealed that the three pepper varieties have high nutritive value, medicinal value and can be used to remediate diseases and sustain health.
Orim Augustine Okiri,
Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional, Phytochemical and Microbiological Quality of Three Pepper Varieties, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 3,
2014, pp. 74-80.
Abramson, D. & Clear, R. M. (1996). A convenient method for assessing mycotoxin production in cultures of Aspergillus and Penicillia. Journal of Food Protection, 59:642-644.
Adenlyl, M. 0. (1977). Status of Plant Protection in the Operation Feed the Nation Programmes. Presidential Address delivered at its 7th Annual Conference at Institute of Agriculture Research and Technol-ogy (IART) Moore Plantation in Ibadan, p. 10-17.
Agbola, S. D (1980). The Role of Nigeria Stored Product Research Institute in Nigeria March toward Self- sufficiency in Food. NSPRT Occa-sional Paper Series, 117: 25-29.
AQAC (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemist. Official Method of Analyst (15th Ed), Washington DC, USA.
Bendich A. (2000). The poten-tial for dietary supplements to reduce premenstrual syndrome (PMS) symptoms. Journal of American Nutrition, 19(1): 3-12.
Bohn, B. A., Kocai-Abyaza, R. (1994). Flavonoid and condensed from leaves of Hawaiinvacciniumratulation and v. calycinum. Pacific Science, 48:458-463.
Bosland, P. W. (1993). Breeding for quality in Capsicum.Capsicum and Eggplant Newsletter, 12: 25-31.
Esayas K., Shimelis A., Ashebir F., Tilahun B., and Gulelat D., (2011). Proximate composition, Mineral content, and Antinutritional factors of some capsicum (Capsicum annum) varieties grown in Ethiopia. Journal of the Korean society of Food Science and Nutrition, 37(8): 1084-1089.
Gloria A., Oyelola B, Adenika T., Anthony J., (2010). Compar-ative analysis of the chemical composition of three Spices. Journal of the Korean society of Food Science and Nutrition, 37(8): 1090-1095.
Howard, L. R., Talcott, S. T., Brenes, C. H., &Villalon, B. (2000). Changes in phytochemical and antioxidant activity of selected pepper culti-vars (Capsicum sp.) as influenced by maturity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 48:1713-1720.
Hunt, S., Goff, J., and Holbrook J. (1980). Nutrition principles and chemical practices. John Wiley andSons. New York, pp: 4952.
IVACG. (1992). Reprints of Selected Methods for Analysis of vitamin A and carotenoids in nutrition surveys. Washington D.C. The nu-trition Foundation, pp 16-18.
Makkar, H. P. S., Becker, K. (1996). Nutritional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted moringaoleifera. Animal Feed Science Technology, 63:211-238.
Markus, F., H.G. Daood, J. Kapitany and P.A. Biacs. 1999. Change in the carotenoid andantioxidant content of spice red pepper (paprika) as a function of ripening andsome technological factors. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 47: 100-107.
Maxwell, A., Seepersani, M. P., Mooton, D. R. (1995). 3, 6-Amino spirosoane steroid alkaloids from solamintriste. Journal of Natural Product, 58 (4):821-825.
Nkam, I. &Gbenyi, D. I. (2001). The Effects of Millet and Sorg bum on the Residure. Phytate and Polypheno in “Dakura” a Nigeria Cereal/Legume Snack Food. Nigerian Tropical Journal of Agriculture, 3, 270-271.
Okwu, D. E. &Ekeke, 0. (2003). Phytochemical Screening and Mineral Composi-tion of Chewing Stick in South Eastern Nigeria. Gobal Journal of Pure Applied Science, 6: 58-61.
Onwuka, G. I. (2005). Food analysis and instrumentation theory and practice. 1st ed. Apex Book limited, Lagos. Pp: 63-120.
Oyeleke, A. O. (1984). Outline of Food Analysis. Ahmadu Bello University Press, Zaria, Nigeria.
Papas M., Giorannuli E., &Platze E. (2004). Fibre from fruit and colorectal Neoplasia. Journal of cancer Epidemiology Biomarker and preven-tion, 13: 1267-1270.
Salah, W., Miller, N., Pagauga, G., Tybury, G., Bolwell, E., Rice, E., & Evans, C. (1995). Flavonoids as scavenger of aqueous phase radicals and chain breaking antioxi-dants. Biochemistry Journal, 2:239-346.
Stray, F. (1998). The natural guide to medicinal herbs and plants. Tiger Book International, London, pp: 12-16.
Trease, G. E., & Evans, W. C. (1983). Pharmacognosy. 14th Edition. Brown Publication, London.
Smolin, F.; Klein, E.; Levy & Bon-Shacken D. (2007). Preliminary Phytochernical Screening and Invitro Antioxidant Properties of MorigaOliefera. Journal of Biochemistry, 45(5): 665-680.
Yoshimura, M., Eakahasi, H., & Nakanishi. (l991). Role of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium on blood pressure regulation. Japan Journal of Nutrition, 49: 53- 62.