Post Harvest Physicochemical Properties of Soursop (Annona Muricata L.) Fruits of Coast Region, Tanzania
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 220-226
Received: Aug. 20, 2014; Accepted: Aug. 29, 2014; Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 3439      Downloads 579
Othman Chande Othman, University of Dar es Salaam, Chemistry Department, P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Christina Fabian, Mkwawa University College of Education, Chemistry Department, P.O. Box Private Bag, Iringa, Tanzania
Esther Lugwisha, University of Dar es Salaam, Chemistry Department, P. O. Box 35061, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
The physicochemical composition of harvested soursop (Annona muricata L.) fruits from Coast region, Tanzania, during open-air storage was determined. The ash, titratable acidity, crude fat, crude fiber, moisture and sugars content were determined by proximate analysis. Ascorbic acid contents were determined using the 2,6-dichlorophenol-indophenol dye method while macro-nutrients and heavy metals were determined by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS). The fruits were harvested at the mature ripe stage and kept in open air storage over several days. The determinations were done immediately after fruit arrival at the laboratory and thereafter at intervals of two days from the day of harvest. The results showed that soursop fruits had high moisture content (73.1% – 82.1%), low titratable acidity (0.10 – 1.25% ca), low crude fat (0.42 mg/100 g-fw), moderate ash content (0.87 mg/100 g-fw) and crude fibre content (6.09 mg/100 g-fw), high ascorbic acid content (34.0 – 19.7 mg/100 g-fw), high total sugars content (34.3% – 45.3%), reducing sugar content (18.9% – 39.2%) and sucrose content (15.5% – 30.0%). Of the macroelements Na, Ca and K, the average content were 895.6, 870.3 and 367.5 mg/100 g-fw respectively. Heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd) content was very low in the soursop fruits, ranging between <0.0015 mg/100 g-fw for Cd and 0.82 mg/100 g-fw for Fe. During storage, the moisture content, titratable acidity level and sugars content in the fruit were all increasing whereas the ascorbic acid content was decreasing. There were no significant changes during storage for levels of crude fat, fiber, ash, mineral elements and heavy metals. The findings from this study suggest that this fruit from coast region of Tanzania can contribute nutritionally to the health of the consumer.
Soursop, Annona Muricata, Physicochemical, Proximate Analysis, Storage, Macronutrients, AAS, Post-Harvest, Tanzania
To cite this article
Othman Chande Othman, Christina Fabian, Esther Lugwisha, Post Harvest Physicochemical Properties of Soursop (Annona Muricata L.) Fruits of Coast Region, Tanzania, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 5, 2014, pp. 220-226. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20140205.13
Luzia, D.M.M. and Jorge, N. (2012). Soursop (Annona muricata L.) and sugar apple (Annona squamosa L.): Antioxidant activity, fatty acids profile and determination of tocopherols. Nutr. Food Sci. 42(6): 434 – 441.
Oberlies, N.H., Chang, C.J. and McLaughlin, J.L. (1997). Structure-activity relationships of diverse Annonaceous acetogenins against multidrug resistant human mammary adenocarcinoma (MCF-7/Adr) cells. J Med Chem. 40(13): 2102 – 2106.
Cassileth, B. (2008). Complementary therapies, herbs, and other OTC agents. Oncology (Williston Park) 22(10): 1202.
Khaidatul, H.M. (2009). Physical properties of soursop (Annona Muricata L.) powder produced by spray drying. Undergraduate Project thesis, Universiti Malaysia Pahang.
Othman, O.C. and Mbogo, G.P. (2009). Physico-chemical characteristics of storage-ripened mango (Mangifera indica L.) fruits varieties of eastern Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sc. 35: 57 – 65.
Othman, O.C. (2011). Physicochemical characteristics and levels of inorganic elements in off-vine ripened pineapple (Ananas comosus L.) fruits of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. KIST J. Sci. Technol. 1: 23 – 30.
Othman, O.C. (2009). Physical and chemical composition of storage-ripened papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruits of eastern Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sci. 35: 47 – 55.
Mbogo, G.P., Mubofu, E.B. and Othman, O.C. (2010). Post harvest changes in physicochemical properties and levels of some inorganic elements in off vine ripened orange (Citrus sinensis) fruits cv (Navel and Valencia) of Tanzania. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 9: 1809-1815.
Dundar, M.S. and Saglam, H.B. (2004). Determination of cadmium and vanadium in tea varieties and their infusion in comparison with 2 infusion processes. Trace Element Electrolytes 21: 60-63.
Colak, H., Soylak, M. and Turkoglu, O. (2005). Determination of trace metal content of various herbal and fruit teas produced and marketed from Turkey. Trace Elements and Electrolytes 22: 192-195.
AOAC (1990). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 15th Ed. Vol. II Association of Official Analytical Chemists Washington, DC, USA.
Ranganna, S. (2000). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. 2nd Edition. Tata MacGraw Hill Company Ltd, New Delhi.
Waston, R.R., and Preedy, V.R. (2009). Bioactive foods in promoting health: Fruits and vegetables. Academic Press, UK. pp 628 – 629.
Onimawo, I.A. (2002). Proximate composition and selected physicochemical properties of the seed, pulp and oil of sour sop (Annona muricata). Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 57(2): 165 – 171.
Sacramento, C.K., Faria, J.C., Cruz, F.L., Barretto, W.S., Gaspar, J.W., and Leite, J.B.V. (2003). Physical-chemical characterization of fruit of three types of soursop trees (Annona muricata L.). Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura. 25(2): 329 – 331.
Badrie, N. and Schauss, A.G. (2009). Composition, nutritional value, medicinal uses, and toxicology, In: R.R.Waston and V.R. Preedy (Ed.), Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health. Academic Press, UK. pp 621– 641.
Onyechi, A.U., Ibeanu, V.N., Eme, P.E. and Kelechi, M. (2006). Nutrient, phytochemical composition and sensory evaluation of soursop (Annona muricata) pulp and drink in south eastern Nigeria. IJBAS-IJENS 12: 53 – 57.
Cardozo, C.J.M. and Valenzuela, J.R.C. (2012). Physico-chemical properties of the soursop fruit (Annona muricata L. cv. Elita) in postharvest. Amer. Soc. Agric. Bio. Eng. (ASABE) Paper number 121340866.
Orsi, D.C., Carvalho, V.S., Nishi, A.C.F., Damiani, C. and Asquieri, E.R. (2012). Use of sugar apple, atemoya and soursop for technological development of jams: chemical and sensorial composition. Ciênc. agrotec. 36(5): 560 – 566.
Bolivar, F.N.; Saucedo, V.C.; Solis P.S.; Sauri, D.E. (2009). Maduración de frutos de saramuyo (Annona squamosa L.) desarrollados en yucatán, México. Agrociencia 43: 133 – 141.
Abbo, E.S., Olurin, T.O. and Odeyemi, G. (2006). Studies on the storage stability of soursop (Annona muricata L.) juice. Afr. J. Biotech. 5: 1808 – 1812.
Boakye, A.A. (2013) Assessment of some health beneficial constituents of edible portions of four underutilized fruits. M.Sc. (Food Sci. Technol.) Thesis. Univ. of Ghana.
Wall, M.M. (2006). Ascorbic acid, vitamin A, and mineral composition of banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars grown in Hawaii. J. Food Comp. Anal. 19: 434 – 445.
NRC (1989) Recommended Dietary Allowances. National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington D.C. USA.
Moos, V. (2014) Chemical composition of the Guanábana (Soursop) retrieved from on 10th August, 2014.
Asgary, S., Sahebkar, A., Afshani, M.R., Keshvari, M., Haghjooyjavanmard, S. and Rafieian-Kopaei, M. (2014). Clinical Evaluation of Blood Pressure Lowering, Endothelial Function Improving, Hypolipidemic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Pomegranate Juice in Hypertensive Subjects. Phytother Res. 28: 193 – 199.
Basu, A. and Panugonda, K. (2009). Pomegranate juice: a heart-healthy fruit juice. Nutr Rev. 67: 49 – 56.
Omoifo, C.O. (2004). Biochemical composition of Soursop fruit (Annona murata) as affected by two harvest seasons. Tropical Agricultural Research and Extension 7: 118 – 124.
Ramulu, P. and Rao, P.U. (2003). Total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber contents of Indian fruits, J. Food Composition and Analysis 16: 677 – 685.
Guyabano Nutritional value. In: Guyabano - The miracle fruit from the tropics. Retrieved from on 14-August 2014.
Amarteifio, J.O. and Mosase, M.O. (2006). The chemical composition of selected indigenous fruits of Botswana. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. 10: 43 – 47.
Morton, J.F. (1987). Soursop. In: Fruits of the warm climate. Greensboro, Media Incorporated. pp75 – 80.
Priyanka, P., Sayed, H.M., Joshi, A.A., Jadhav, B.A. and Chilkawar, P.M. (2013). Studies on effect of different extraction methods on the quality of pomegranate juice and preparation of spiced pomegranate juice. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. Dietetics 2: 502 – 508.
Sawant, T.P. and Dongre, R.S. (2014). Bio-chemical compositional analysis of Annona murata: A miracle fruit’s review. Int. J. Univ. Pharmacy and Bio Sciences 3(2): 82 – 104.
Bayizit, A.A. (2010). Analysis of mineral content in pomegranate juice by ICP-OES. Asian J. Chem. 22: 6542 – 6548.
Codex Alimentarius Commission, (2001). Food additives and contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards programme. pp1–289.
Luilo, G.B. and Othman, O.C. (2006). Lead pollution in urban environments of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Tanz. J. Sci. 32: 61 – 67.
Teju, E, Megersa, N., Chandravanshi, B.S. and Zewge, F. (2014). Lead accumulation in the roadside soils from heavy density motor way towns of eastern Ethiopia. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 28(2): 161 – 176.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186