Quality Evaluation of Enzyme Liquefied Papaya Juice Concentrate (PJC) Stored at Various Temperatures
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 90-97
Received: Mar. 19, 2015;
Accepted: Mar. 26, 2015;
Published: Apr. 3, 2015
Views 6224 Downloads 314
B. V. Vishal, Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
A. S. Chauhan, Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
M. N. Rekha, Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
P. S. Negi, Department of Fruit and Vegetable Technology, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, India
This paper aims to study the effect of storage on enzyme liquefied papaya juice concentrate. Papaya pulp was liquefied using pectinase enzyme for juice extraction. The enzyme liquefied juice was subjected to concentration process by adopting Single Effect Tubular Evaporator (SETE) at 50°C with 24 inches vacuum. The Papaya Juice Concentrate (PJC), 68°brix was packed in high density polyethylene (HDPE) jars (200 g capacity) by leaving one inch head space and packed PJC jars were stored at various temperatures such as room temperature (RT, 29±1°C), low temperature (LT, 4°C) and frozen storage temperature (FT, -18°C). The PJC samples were analyzed for physicochemical characteristics and microbial load at 15 days intervals using methods reported in the literature. During storage, the PJC samples stored at RT showed significant increase in L, a and b values and browning as compared to LT and FT, while slight change in carotenoid content was observed. At the end of one month storage, the microbial counts (colony-forming unit/g) like total plate counts, yeast and molds counts and Staphylococcus counts in the PJC samples were low and Escherichia coli was absent. The study showed that enzymatic liquefaction can be used for better juice extraction from papaya and PJC prepared from this juice was physicochemically and microbiologically stable at various temperatures for one month.
B. V. Vishal,
A. S. Chauhan,
M. N. Rekha,
P. S. Negi,
Quality Evaluation of Enzyme Liquefied Papaya Juice Concentrate (PJC) Stored at Various Temperatures, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 90-97.
Rai, P., Majumdar, G.C., Das Gupta, S., & De, S. (2004). Optimizing Pectinase usage in pre-treatment of mosambi juice for clarification by response surface methodology. Journal of Food Engineering, 64, 397 – 403.
Rastogi, N.K. & Rashmi, K.R. (1999). Optimization of enzymatic liquefaction of mango pulp by response surface methodology. European Food Research and Technology, 209, 57-62.
Sreenath, H.K., & Santharam, K. (1992). The use of commercial enzymes in white grape juice clarification. Journal of Fermentation and Bioengineering, 2, 241 – 243.
Pilnik, W., & Voragen A.G.J. (1989). Effect of enzyme treatment on the quality of processed fruits and vegetables. In: Jen, J.J. (Ed), Quality factors of fruits and vegetable chemistry and technology, pp 250-269, Symposium Series 405, American Chemical Society, Washington DC.
Chauhan, A.S., Afroze, S.G., Ramesh, M.N., Avula, R.Y., Rekha, M.N., & Ramteke, R.S. (2004). Optimization of enzymatic liquefaction of papaya and jackfruit pulp using response surface methodology. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 2 (2), 108-113.
Vasserot, Y., Christiaens, H., Chemardin, P., Arnaud, A., & Galzy, P. (1989). Purification and properties of a ß-glucosidase of Hunseniosporu vime (Van der Walt and Tscheuschner) with the view to its utilization in fruit aroma liberation. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 66 (4), 271-279.
Manjunatha, S.S., Raju, P.S., & Bawa, A.S. (2012). Modelling the rheological behaviour of enzyme clarified lime (Citrus aurantifolia L.) juice concentrate. Czech Journal of Food Science, 30, 456–466.
Vijayanand, P., Kulkarni, S.G., & Prathibha, G.V. (2010). Effect of pectinase treatment and concentration of litchi juice on quality characteristics of litchi juice. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47 (2), 235-239.
Sharma, S.K., Sharma, P.C., & Lal Kaushal, B.B. (2001). Effect of storage temperature and folds of concentration on quality characteristics of galgal (Citrus pseudolimon Tan.) juice concentrates. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 38 (6), 553-556.
Abduljalil, D.S.G., Ronald, E.W., & Mina, R.M. (2002). Composition and quality of clarified cantaaoupe juice concentrate. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 26 (1), 39–56.
Wrolstad, R.E., Cornwell, C.J., Culbertson, J.D., & Reyes, F.G.R. (1981). Establishing criteria for determining the authenticity of fruit juice concentrates. In: Teranishi R, Barrera-Benitez H (Eds). Quality of selected fruits and vegetables of North America. ACS-Symposium-Series, 170, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, pp 77-93.
Kulkarni, S.G., Vijyayanand, P., & Shubha, L. (2010). Effect of processing of dates into date juice concentrate and appraisal of its quality characteristics. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 47 (2), 157-161.
Belibagli, K.B., Dalgic, A.C. (2007). Rheological properties of sour-cherry juice and concentrate. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 42, 773–776.
Keshani, S., Luqman Chuah, A., & Russly, A.R. (2012). Effect of temperature and concentration on rheological properties pomelo juice concentrates. International Food Research Journal, 19 (2), 553-562.
Ramteke, R.S., Singh, N.I., Rekha, M.N., & Eipeson, W.E. (1993). Methods for Concentration of Fruit Juices: A Critical Evaluation. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 30, 391-402.
Neha, I.B., & Tumane, P.M. (2011). Studies on microbial flora of fruit juices and cold drinks. Asiatic Journal of Biotechnology Resources, 2 (4), 454-460.
Ranganna, S. (2002). Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. In: Ranganna, S. (Ed), Tata Mc-Graw Hill publishing Co. Ltd, New Delhi.
Vanderzant, C., & Splittstoesser, D. (1992). Compendium of methods for the microbial examination of foods. In: Vanderzant C, Splittstoesser D (Eds), 3rd Edn, APHA, Washington DC.
Aider, M., Halleux, Dde., & Belkacemi, K. (2007). Production of granulated sugar from maple syrup with high content of inverted sugar. Journal of Food Engineering, 80, 791–797.
Martins, S.I.F.S., Jongen, W.M.F., Van Boekel, M.A.J.S. (2001). A review of Maillard reaction in food and implications to kinetic modeling. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 11, 364–373.
Wong, M., & Stanton, D.W. (1989). Nonenzymic browning in kiwifruit juice concentrate systems during storage. Journal of Food Science, 54 (3), 669–673.
Hande, S.B., & Feryal, K. (2003). Effect of storage on non-enzymatic browning of apple juice concentrates. Food Chemistry, 80, 91–97.
Pereira, C.D.Q., Lavinas, F.C., Lopes, M.L.M., & Valente-Mesquita, V.L. (2008). Industrialized cashew juices: variation of ascorbic acid and other physicochemical parameters. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos Campinas, 28, 266-270.
IAL. (1985). Normas Analíticas: Métodos Químicos e Físicos para Análise de Alimentos, 3rd ed., Instituto Adolfo Lutz, São Paulo.
Singh, N.I., Mayer, C.D., Lozano, Y. (2000). Physicochemical changes during enzymatic liquefaction of mango pulp (cv. Keit). Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 24, 73-85.
Arslan, E., Yener, M.E., & Esin, A. (2005). Rheological characterization of tahin/pekmez (sesame paste/concentrated grape juice) blends. Journal of Food Engineering, 69, 167–172.
Rao, M.A. (1999a). Introduction. In: Rao, M.A. (Ed), Rheology of fluid and semisolid foods: Principles and Applications, Aspen Publishers Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, pp 1-22.
Rao, M.A. (1999b). Flow and functional models for rheological properties of fluid foods. In: Rao, M.A. (Ed), Rheology of fluid and semisolid foods: Principles and Applications. Aspen Publishers Inc, Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA, pp 25-59.
Namitha, K.K., & Negi, P.S. (2010). Chemistry and biotechnology of carotenoids. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 50, 728- 760.
Cano, M.P., De Ancos, B. (1994). Carotenoid and carotenoid ester composition of mango fruit as influenced by processing method. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 42, 2737–2742.
Cano, M.P., & Marin, M.A. (1992). Pigment composition and color of frozen and canned kiwi fruit slices. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 40, 2141–2146.
Shi, J., & Le Maguer, M. (2000). Lycopene in tomatoes: chemical and physical properties affected by food processing. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, 20, 293–334.
McLellan, M.R., & Padilla-Zakour, O.I. (2005). Juice processing. In: Barrett, D.M., Somogyi, L.P., & Ramaswamy, H. (Eds), Processing Fruits: Science and Technology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 72-95.
Klein, B.P. (1987). Nutritional consequences of minimal processing of fruits and vegetables. Journal of Food Quality, 10, 179–193.
Tovar, B., Garcie, H., & Mata, M. (2001). Physiology of pre-cut mango II. evolution of organic acids. Food Research International, 34, 705–714.
Rincon, A., & Kerr, W.L. (2010). Influence of osmotic dehydration, ripeness and frozen storage on physicochemical properties of mango. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 34 (5), 887–903.
FSSAI. (2011). Food Safety and Standards Authority of India, Food Safety and Standards (Food Product Standards and Food Additives) regulation, (Part II), pp 496-503.
Frazier & Westhoff (1978). Food Microbiology, 3rd Ed. Tata McGraw Hill.
Phaichamnan, M., Posri, W., & Meenune, M. (2010). Quality profile of palm sugar concentrate produced in Songkhla province, Thailand. International Food Research Journal, 17, 425-432.