Physical and Textural Attributes of Freeze-Dried Genetically Modified and Non-Genetically Modified Soy Beans
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 3, May 2015, Pages: 119-125
Received: Oct. 16, 2014;
Accepted: Oct. 23, 2014;
Published: May 12, 2015
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Srinivas Rayaprolu, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, N Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR
Navam Hettiarachchy, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, N Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR
Mohammed Aldoury, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, N Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR
Sungeun Cho, Department of Food Science, University of Arkansas, N Young Ave., Fayetteville, AR
David Moseley, Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences building, 115 Plant Sciences Building, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
Pengyin Chen, Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences building, 115 Plant Sciences Building, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR
Freeze-dried soybean snack foods are innovative and engage the nutritious whole soybean seeds in human diet. The freeze-dried soybeans provide high quality protein, cholesterol-free low percentage of saturated fats, minerals, and vitamins. Our research evaluated the quality of freeze-dried soybean seed products by testing their physical and textural properties. Seeds of six soybeans: R08-4004, R05-4969, R95-1705, Osage (4 non-genetically modified varieties), JYC-2 and UA Kirksey (2 genetically modified varieties) were cooked to prepare the freeze dried product. The physical characteristics such as color, water activity, water absorption efficiency, and textural characteristics including hardness and crunchiness were evaluated. The freeze-dried seeds showed significantly enhanced color and textural characteristics while maintaining crunchiness in the product along with low water activity. The water absorption efficiency increased with an increase in seed tissue integrity. The large sized seeds of genetically modified variety, JYC-2 (edamame or vegetable soybean) with high protein (42%), were found to be best suited for preparing the snack or breakfast cereal. This study showed that freeze-drying the soybean seeds maintains the quality attributes and appeal after processing. The Acoustic Envelop Detector technique for measuring textural qualities demonstrated significant potential for comprehensive results and greater application in testing similar food products. Our findings suggest a higher prospective for the freeze-dried soybeans as snack food or breakfast cereal with an impending commercial value.
Physical and Textural Attributes of Freeze-Dried Genetically Modified and Non-Genetically Modified Soy Beans, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 3, No. 3,
2015, pp. 119-125.
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