Effect of the Traditional Cooking Methods (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional Profile of Quality Protein Maize
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 34-40
Received: Jan. 12, 2016;
Accepted: Feb. 3, 2016;
Published: May 11, 2016
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Omenna Emmanuel Chukwuma, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Olanipekun Oyeyoyin Taiwo, Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Udouso Victory Boniface, Federal College of Agriculture, Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
Freshly harvested yellow quality protein maize (QPM) was subjected to boiling and roasting. Proximate, nutrients and anti-nutrients analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of these treatments on the nutritional compositions and anti-nutrients content of quality protein maize. The result showed that the roasted quality protein maize (RQPM) had significantly higher crude proteins, crude fat, crude fiber, ash and carbohydrate value than the boiled quality protein maize (BQPM) and the raw (CQPM). There was an increased in energy value of roasted samples (355.41kcal/100g) whereas boiled samples recorded decreased energy value (73.04 kcal/100g). Roasting had significantly increased the level of Na, K, P, Ca and Mg while boiling slightly decreased the amount of these macro elements compared with the raw (CQPM). There was no significant difference in potassium content of all the samples. Roasted quality protein maize had higher amount of the micro elements (iron, zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium) than BQPM and CQPM. However, boiling had significantly reduced phytate content by 9.62% while roasting had 5.84% phytate reduction when compared with the raw. BQPM had significantly reduced oxalate by 7.03% while RQPM had 3.13% oxalate reduction. Both cooking methods (boiling and roasting) had similar reduction (50%) of tannin. The results demonstrated that boiling was more effective in the reduction of anti-nutritional factors than roasting. Processing had significant impact on the fat soluble vitamins of quality protein maize. RQPM had the highest vitamin A with 88.24% increment whereas BQPM had 8.78% reduction of vitamin A. Similar trend was observed in vitamin E. The effect of processing on the beta –carotene of the quality protein maize was in the increasing order: BQPM < CQPM < RQPM. The superiority of quality protein maize has been demonstrated by its high content of lysine (3.04% for RQPM, 1.73% for BQPM and 2.11% for raw, CQPM) and methionine content ranges from 1.27 to 2.01% for boiled and roasted samples respectively. Roasting enhanced the nutritional values of quality protein maize by increasing the lysine and methionine content. These two essential amino acids are limited in other cereal crops. Boiling appeared to have experienced nutrients loss when compared with others. Therefore, nutritional values of quality protein maize could be harnessed by roasting to meet the nutritional needs of humans and may be used in formulation of various foods.
Omenna Emmanuel Chukwuma,
Olanipekun Oyeyoyin Taiwo,
Udouso Victory Boniface,
Effect of the Traditional Cooking Methods (Boiling and Roasting) on the Nutritional Profile of Quality Protein Maize, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2016, pp. 34-40.
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