Awareness in the Context of Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency Among Households in Western Kenya Using a Cross-Sectional Study
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 3, May 2016, Pages: 55-64
Received: Apr. 20, 2016; Accepted: Apr. 29, 2016; Published: May 13, 2016
Views 4583      Downloads 188
Authors
Mary Anyango Oyunga, Kenya Agriculture & Livestock Research Organization, Kisumu, Kenya
David Okeyo Omondi, Department of Nutrition and Health, Nutritionists and Dieticians Institute, Maseno University, Kisumu, Kenya
Fredrick Kobina Ebo Grant, International Potato Center, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
Article Tools
Follow on us
Abstract
Increasing awareness of the role of vitamin A (VA) in human health has led to international efforts to eliminate VA deficiency (VAD) as a public health problem. This paper examined community awareness of existence, signs and symptoms, causes, control of VAD as well as attitudes, so as to identify knowledge gaps among health workers and caretakers/mothers. This was a community-based study within the catchment areas served by health facilities offering ante-natal care services in Busia and Bungoma counties in Western Kenya. The study adopted cross-sectional design and purposive sampling technique. Eight focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with pregnant and lactating mothers and eight key informant interviews with those in charge of health facilities until saturation. Data was audio recorded, transcribed, coded and thematically analyzed using ATLAS.ti version 6 software. Most respondents stated having heard about VA/VAD but very few had the correct knowledge of signs and symptoms, causes, and control of VAD. Their attitudes towards VAD and its control were generally indifferent with a general belief that they had no control over their circumstances to reduce VAD. Although VAD was prevalent in the study area, majority of the people in the community had low awareness. This study, therefore, stresses the need for health education to raise community’s awareness on VAD in such settings in order to augment prevention, control and elimination efforts.
Keywords
Vitamin A Deficiency, Awareness, Community, Western Kenya
To cite this article
Mary Anyango Oyunga, David Okeyo Omondi, Fredrick Kobina Ebo Grant, Awareness in the Context of Prevalence of Vitamin A Deficiency Among Households in Western Kenya Using a Cross-Sectional Study, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 3, 2016, pp. 55-64. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20160403.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
References
[1]
Beaton, G. H., Martorell, R., Aronson, K. A., et al., 1994. Vitamin A supplementation and child morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Food and Nutrition Bulletin; 15: 282-289.
[2]
Aguayo, V. and Baker, S. K., 2005. Vitamin A deficiency and child survival in sub-Saharan Africa: A reappraisal of challenges and opportunities. Food and Nutrition Bulletin; 26: 348-355.
[3]
WHO, 2009. Global prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in populations at risk (1995–2005): WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. Geneva: World Health Organization.
[4]
Ministry of Health/Kenya Medical Research Institute, 1999. Anaemia and the Status of Iron, Vitamin A and Zinc in Kenya. The National Micronutrient Survey Report.
[5]
Ngare DK, Muttunga JN & Njonge E., 2000. Vitamin A deficiency in pre-school children in Kenya. East African Medical Journal 77, 421–424.
[6]
Munene RM, Adala HS, Masinde MS et al., 2003. Vitamin A deficiency among Kenyan children as detected by conjunctival impression cytology. East African Medical Journal 80, 476–479.
[7]
Siekmann JH, Allen LH, Bwibo NO et al., 2003. Kenyan school children have multiple micronutrient deficiencies, but increased plasma vitamin B-12 is the only detectable micronutrient response to meat or milk supplementation. Journal of Nutrition 133, 3972S–3980S.
[8]
Nabakwe EC, Lichtenbelt WV, Ngare DK et al., 2005. Vitamin a deficiency and anaemia in young children living in a malaria endemic district of western Kenya. East African Medical Journal 82, 300–306.
[9]
Ettyang GA, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Oloo A et al., 2003. Serum retinol, iron status and body composition of lactating women in Nandi, Kenya. Annals of Nutrition &Metabolism 47, 276–283.
[10]
Baeten JM, Richardson BA, Bankson DD et al., 2004. Use of serum retinol-binding protein for prediction of vitamin A deficiency: effects of HIV-1 infection, protein malnutrition, and the acute phase response. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 79, 218–225.
[11]
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, 2008. The Kenya National Technical Guidelines for Micronutrient Deficiency Control, Nairobi, Kenya.
[12]
Black R, Allen L, Bhutta, L. Caulfield, M. de Onis, M. Ezzati, C. Mathers and J. Rivera., 2008. Maternal and Child Undernutrition Study Group: Maternal and Child Undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences. Lancet 371: 243-60.
[13]
Alvarez JO et al., 1995. Urinary excretion of retinol in children with acute diarrhea American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 61: 1273–1276.
[14]
Mitra AK, Alvarez JO, Guay-Woodford L, Fuchs GJ, Wahed MA, Stephensen CB., 1998. Urinary retinol excretion and kidney function in children with Shigellosis. Am J Clin Nutr; 68: 1095–103.
[15]
Sommer A and West KP Jr., 1996. Vitamin A deficiency: health, survival, and vision. New York: Oxford University Press.
[16]
Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), ICF Macro, 2010. Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008–09. Calverton, Maryland: KNBS and ICF Macro.
[17]
The State of the world Children, 2015. New York, UNICEF: 2014.
[18]
Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, 2015. Key Indicators: Kenya National Bureau of Statistics Nairobi, Kenya.
[19]
West KP., 2002. Extent of vitamin A deficiency among preschool children and women of reproductive age. J Nutrition, 132 (suppl): 2857S–66S.
[20]
GoK, 2012. National Food and Nutrition security Policy. Agriculture Sector Coordination Unit (ASCU).
[21]
GoK, 2009. Bungoma District Development Plan (2008-2012). Kenya Vision 2030. Towards a Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya. June 2009.
[22]
GoK, 2009. Busia District Development Plan (2008-2012). Kenya Vision 2030. Towards a Globally Competitive and Prosperous Kenya. June 2009.
[23]
Krueger RA., 1998. Focus groups: a practical guide for applied research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
[24]
Christian, P., West, K. P., Jr., Khatry, S. K., Katz, J., LeClerq, S. C., Pradhan, E. K. & Shrestha, S. R., 1998. Vitamin A or β-carotene reduces but does not eliminate maternal night blindness in Nepal. J. Nutr. 128: 1458–1463.
[25]
Braun V and Clarke V., 2006. ‘‘Using thematic analysis in psychology’’. Qualitative Research in Psychology 3 (2): 83.
[26]
M. W. Kamau, A. O. Makokha, J. K. Mutai and I. K. Mugoya, 2012. Factors Influencing Vitamin A Supplementation among Mothers of Children Under Five Years Old at Mbagathi District Hospital, Kenya. East African Medical Journal Vol. 89 No. 4.
[27]
Birungi H and Onyango-Ouma W., 2006. Acceptability and sustainability of the WHO focused antenatal care package in Kenya. FRONTIERS Final Report. Washington, DC: Population Council; pp. 32–13.
[28]
Conrad P, De Allegri M, Moses A, Larsson EC, Neuhann F, Müller O, Sarker M., 2012. Antenatal care services in rural Uganda: Missed opportunities for good-quality care. Qual Health Res.; 22 (5): 619–629. doi: 10.1177/1049732311431897.
[29]
Van Eijk AM, Bles HM, Odhiambo F, Ayisi JG, Blokland IE, Rosen DH, Adazu K, Slutsker L, Lindblade KA., 2006. Use of antenatal services and delivery care among women in rural western Kenya: a community based survey. Reprod Heal; 3 (2) Pub Med.
[30]
Magoma M, Requejo J, Merialdi M, Campbell OMR, Cousens S, Filippi V., 2011. How much time is available for antenatal care consultations? Assessment of the quality of care in rural Tanzania. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth.; 11 (64) PubMed
[31]
Helen Keller International, 1993. How to use the HKI food frequency method to assess community risk of vitamin A deficiency. New York, HKI: 79p.
[32]
Ouedraogo H, Sindi K, Oyunga M, Kariuki S, Vulule J, Cole D, Levin C, Thiele G, Low J., 2012. Mama SASHA baseline survey report. International Potato Centre.
[33]
Kennedy GL, Pedro MR, Seghieri C, Nantel G, Brouwer I., 2007. Dietary diversity score is a useful indicator of micronutrient intake in non-breast-feeding Filipino children. J Nutr. 137 (2): 472–477.
[34]
Rolf Klemm, Dr. PH, Philip Harvey, Ph. D., Amanda Palmer MHS., Keith P. West, Jr., Dr. PH. 2007. GAP ANALYSIS, Defining the Issues for Vitamin A Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
[35]
Christian, P., West, K. P., Khatry, S. K., Kimbrough-Pradhan, E., LeClerq, S. C., Katz, J., Shrestha, S. R., Dali, S. M. & Sommer, A., 2000. Night blindness during pregnancy and subsequent mortality among women in Nepal: effects of Vitamin A and _-carotene supplementation. Am. J. Epidemiol. 152: 542–547.
[36]
Christian, P., West, K. P., Jr., Yamini, S., Stallings, R., Sharma, S., Hackman, A., Shrestha, S. R. & Khatry, S. K., 2001. Potentiating effect of zinc supplementation on vitamin A in curing night blindness during pregnancy in Nepal. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73: 1045–1051.
[37]
Christian P., 2002. Recommendations for indicators: night blindness during pregnancy - a simple tool to assess vitamin A deficiency in a population. J Nutr; 132: 2884S-2888S.
ADDRESS
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
U.S.A.
Tel: (001)347-983-5186