Effects of Traditional Processing Methods on the Mineral and Antinutrients of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 192-197
Received: Apr. 25, 2017;
Accepted: May 4, 2017;
Published: Oct. 24, 2017
Views 2164 Downloads 125
Agomuo Jude Kelechi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University, Dutsinma, Nigeria
Okache Thomas Akobi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University, Dutsinma, Nigeria
Taiwo Mayomi, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University, Dutsinma, Nigeria
Anamege Lynda Chioma, Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University, Dutsinma, Nigeria
Bitter Leaf is a vegetable that is widely consumed and cherished in South-Eastern Nigeria. Palm oil, Potash, Salt and boiling process was used in the squeeze-washing at 3 pre-processing methods of squeeze-wash and periods of 3 to 8 minutes. The percentage retention and losses of mineral and antinutrient increased simultaneously during squeeze-washing. Copper, magnesium, calcium and antinutrient had retention of 55 to 100% for samples squeezed-washed with palm oil than the other squeeze- washed samples. This could be due to rigidity of the cells which did not allow much nutrient leached into the squeezed leaf/water; whereas, the loss of mineral and antinutrients was practically of the same magnitude (27.3 to 80.5%) in all the samples. Loss of minerals and antinutrients was observed to be influenced directly by the cause-and-effect of disintegration changes which usually leads to softening due to the severity of the squeeze-washing on the bitter leaf instead of cellular composition or level of minerals and antinurients initially present. The results are discussed in relation to traditional commercial practice of bitter leaf processing.
Agomuo Jude Kelechi,
Okache Thomas Akobi,
Anamege Lynda Chioma,
Effects of Traditional Processing Methods on the Mineral and Antinutrients of Fresh and Squeezed-Washed Bitter Leaf, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences.
Vol. 5, No. 5,
2017, pp. 192-197.
A. O. A. C. (2005) Official methods of Analysis of Analytical Chemists.
Adepoju, O. T. and Oyewole, E. O (2008). Nutritional importance and micronuteient potentials of two non-conventional indigenious Green leafy vegetables from Nigeria. Agric. j. 3 (5): 362-365.
Akubugwo, I. E., Obasi, N. A., Chinyere, G. C. and Ugbofu, A. E. (2007). Nutritional and chemical value of Amarathus hybridus L. leave from Afikpo, Nigeria. African Journal of Biotechnology 6 (24): 2833-2839.
Allen, L. H. (2003). Intervention for micronutrient deficiency control in developing countries: past, present and future. Journal of Nutrition, 133: 3875-3878.
Allison, A. (2001). The possible role of vitamin K deficiency control in the pathogenesis of Alzeimer’s disease and in augmenting brain damage associated with cardiovascular diseases. Medical Hypothesis 57 (2): 151-155.
Awoyinka, A. F., Abegunde, V. O. and Adewusi, S. R. A (1995). Nutrient content of young cassava leaves and assessment of their acceptance as a green vegetable in Nigeria. Plant foods for Human Nutrition 47: 21-28.
Ayoola, P. B., Adeyeye, A. and Onawuni, O. O. (2001). Trace elements and major minerals evaluation of Spondias mombin, V. amygdalina and Momordica charantia leaves. Pakistan journal of nutrition 9 (8): 755-758.
Balakbir, A., Butz, J. M., and Romero, L. (1998). Yield and fruit quality of pepper (Capsicum annum L.)in response to Bioregulator. Horticultural Science 3. 85-87.
Bolaji, P. T., komolafe G. O. and Alli, E. (2008). Drying characteristics of selected local Nigerian vegetables, Nigerian Food journal 26 (1): p 138.
Buttler, G. W. and Bailey, R. W. (1973). Chemistry and Biochemistry of Herbage. Academic Press, London. P. 63.
Chandra, R. K. (1990). Micro nutrients and Immune Functions: An Overview. Annals of new York Academy of Science. 587-9-16.
Chima, C. E. and Igyor, M. A. (2007). Micronutrients and anti-nutritional contents of selected tropical vegetable grown in south-Eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Food Journal. 25 (1): 111-117.
Ejoh, A. A., Djuikwo, V. N., Gouado, I. and Mbofung, C. M. (2007a). Nutritional components of some non-conventional leafy vegetables consumed in Cameroon. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 6 (6): 712-717.
Ejoh, A. A., Djuikwo, V. N. gouado, I. and Mbofung, C. M (2007b) Effects of the method of processing and preservation on some quality parameters of the non- conventional leafy vegetables. Pakistan of Nutrition 6 (2): 128 -133.
Fasuyi, A. O. (2006) Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable meals; chemistry characterization and function properties. African Journal of biotechnology 5 (1): 49.
FNB. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine (2001). Dietary Reffence intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Molybdenum, Nickel Sillicon, Vanadium and Zinc. Washton D. C. Standing Committee on scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference intakes national-Academic press.
Fugile, L. (2000). Moringa, Natures medicine Cabinet is natural for tropics.
Hays, V. W and Swenson, M. J (1985) minerals and Bones in : Dukes’ Physiology of Domestic animals. 10th Edition pp. 449-466.
Huffman, G. (1998). Zinc can reduce pediatric respiratory infections American family Physician 58: p2127.
Igile, G. O., Oleszyek, W., Burda, S. and Jurzysta, N. (1995). Nutritional assessment of Veronomia amygdalina leaves in growing mice. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 43: 2162-2166.
Ijeh. I., Nwugo, V. o and Obidoa, O. (1996). Comparative studies on the nutritive Pytochemical and antimicrobial properties of two verties of Vernonia. Plant Pros comm. 1: 71-75. james, C. S. (1995) Analytical chemistry of Foods. Chapman and Hallm, New York pp. 28 and 405.
Kupehan, S. M., Hemingway, R. J., karim, A. and Werner, D. (1969) Tumor inhibitors 47: vernodalin and vernomygdin, two New Cytotoxic Chemistry 34: 908-3911.
Lean M. N., (2006). Vitamins and other bioactive food constituents in: Food Science, Nutrition and Health (7th edition). Edward Hodder Ltd, London pp198-216.
Makobo, N. O., Shoko, M. D. and Mtatia, T. A (2010). Nutrient content of amaranth (Amaranthus crunetus L.) under different processing and preservation methods. World journal of Agricultural sciences 6 (6): 639-643. Malhotra, V. k. (1998) Biochemistry for student (10th Edition). Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers Ltd, New Dehi, india.
Mepba, H. D., Eboth, F. and Bonigbo, D. E. B. (2007) Effects of processing treatments on the nutritive composition and consumer acceptance of some Nigerian edible leafy vegetables. African Journal of Food Agriculture, nutrition and development (71): 1-8.
Morah, G. N. and Obiegbuna, J. E. (2002). The effect of different pre-washing and washing treatment on some chemical and sensory properties of bitter leaf vegetable. Nigerian Food Journal 20: 52-57.
Munro, A. and Basssir, O. (1969). Oxalate in nigeria vegetables. W. Afr. J. Society of Nigeria. Abakaliki, November, 14th-17th p. 111-114.
Murray, R. K. Granner, D. k., meyes, P. A, Rodwell, V. W. (2000). Harpers biochemistry 25th Edition McGraw- Hill health Profession Division, USA.
Nnamani, C. V., Oselebe, H. O. and Okorie, E. O. (2007) Ethonobotany of indigenous leafy vegetables of Izzi Clan in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. In: proceeding of 20th annual national Conference of Biotechnology Society of Nigeria. Abakaliki, november, 14th-17thpp. 111-114.
Obiakor, P. N. (2007) Effect of different processing techniques on the nutrients and anti-nutrients composition of trifolioate yam (Doscorea dumentonum) Flours. Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences 28 (2): 68-74.
Oguntona, T. (1998). Green leafy vegetables. In: osagie, A. U. and Eka, O. U. (Eds) Nutritional Quality of plant foods. Amik Press, Benin City Nigeria 5: 120-133.
Ogutona, T. (1985) Loss of thiamine in some Nigerian vegetables. A paper presented at the 1st International Conference of Food and health, held in Salsamaggire Parma, Italy, p. 20.
Okafor, J. C. (1979). Edible indigenous woody plants in the rural ecosystem (D. U. U. Okali, ed). Proceeding of M. A. B. Workshop on the Nigerian Rainforest Ecosytem. University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
Okafor, N. and Anichie, G. N. (1983) West African Hop Substitutes for sorghum lager Beer. Dist. Int. 13 (1): 20-23, 31.
Oladunmoye, O. o., Ojeniyi, S. and Bankole, A. O. (2005) Mineral composition of tender and matured cassava leaves after home cooking procedures. Proceedings of 29th Annual conference of the Nigerian institute of food science and technology held at Ebonyi state university, Abakaliki pp. 151-152.
Ologunde, m. O., Ayorinde, F. O., Shephard, R. K., Afolabi, O. A. and Oke, O. L. (1992)Sterols of seed oils of Vernonia galanesis, Amaranthus cruentu, Amaranthus caudatum, Amaranthus hybridus and Amaranthus hypoochrondriacus grown in the humid tropics. Journal of food and agriculture 58: 221-225.
Oshodi, A. A. (1992). Comparison of Proteins, minerals and Vitamin C content of some dried leafy vegetables. Pakistan journal of science and industrial research 35: 267-269.
Price, M. (1995). Moringa tree in Natural Nutrition for Tropics. Sierra Sunrise books Missouri 1: pp. 12-15.
Saidu, A. N. and Jideobi, N. G. (2009). The proximate and elemental analysis of some leafy vegetables grown in Minna and Environs. Journal of Applied Science Environment and Management 13 (4): 21-22.
Selman, J. D. (1994). Vitamin retention during blanching of vegetables. Food Chemistry 49: 144-147.
Singh, G., Kawatra, A. and Sehgal, S. (2001). Nutritional composition of selected Green Leafy vegetables, herbs and carrots. Plant foods for human nutrition 56: 359-364.
Streeten, D. H. P. and Williams, E. V. (1952). Loss of cellular potassium as a cause of intestinal paralysis in dogs. Journal of Physiology 118: 149-170.
Szabo, G. Chanvan, S., Mandrekar, p., Catalano D. (1999) Acute Alcoholic.