Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Some Plants Used in Ethnomedicine in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 198-205
Received: Apr. 29, 2017; Accepted: May 10, 2017; Published: Oct. 24, 2017
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Authors
Mercy Gospel Ajuru, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Light Femi Williams, Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Rivers State University of Science and Technology, Nkpolu-Oroworukwo, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Gospel Ajuru, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Port Harcourt, Port Harcourt, Nigeria
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Abstract
Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of six plants used in ethnomedicine in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria was carried out to identify and quantify the bioactive compounds present in these highly medicinal plants. The plants studied were Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn, Euphorbia heterophylla Linn., Senna occidentalis L., Piper nigrum L., Ageratum conyzoides L. and Gongronema latifolium Benth. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves of the plant species were screened for the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinone, coumarin, flavonoid, phenol, quinone, saponin, tannin, sugar and glycoside and quantitative study was also carried out using Standard method. Qualitative study indicated the presence of all the phytochemicals in the ethanolic extracts of P. amarus and E. heterophylla, and absence of anthraquinone in S. occidentalis, P. nigrum, A. conyzoides and G. latifolium. Also, absence of coumarin in S. occidentalis, and phenol in G. latifolium. The aqueous extract indicated the presence of all the phytochemicals in A. conyzoides and presence of alkaloid, tannin, sugar and glycoside in other plant species studied. Quantitative analysis showed variable amounts of pharmacologically important secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, flavonoid, saponins and phenol in all the plants investigated. The different phytochemicals are shown to perform different biological activities in humans and animals. These compounds can be harnessed for industrial and pharmaceutical utilization.
Keywords
Bioactive Compounds, Ethnomedicine, Medicinal Plants, Quantitative Study, Qualitative Study, Ethanolic Extract, Aqueous Extract
To cite this article
Mercy Gospel Ajuru, Light Femi Williams, Gospel Ajuru, Qualitative and Quantitative Phytochemical Screening of Some Plants Used in Ethnomedicine in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 5, No. 5, 2017, pp. 198-205. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20170505.16
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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