Development and Validation of a B. E. A. N. Survey for College Students
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 2, March 2018, Pages: 37-45
Received: Dec. 18, 2017; Accepted: Jan. 17, 2018; Published: Feb. 5, 2018
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Morgan F. Sowers, Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America
Sarah E. Colby, Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America
Chelsea L. Allison, Department of Nutrition, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America
Wenjun Zhou, Department of Business Analytics and Statistics, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States of America
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Background: College students often do not consume the recommended amounts of beans and legumes. To develop interventions aimed at improving the intake of beans and legumes in the college population, more information is needed on the behaviors, environment, attitudes, and nutrition knowledge (B. E. A. N.) of college students regarding beans. Validated tools to assess these bean-related constructs are currently lacking. Objectives: The objectives of this study are to 1). Gather preliminary qualitative information about bean-related constructs (Phase I); and 2). Create a valid and reliable survey tool to measure the B. E. A. N. constructs with a larger sample of college students (Phase II). Methods: Phase I included cognitive interviews with university students (n = 30) to collect baseline data on the B. E. A. N. constructs. Phase II involved survey development and content validation with 5 content experts and face validation with 5 undergraduate students. A convenience sample of undergraduate students was surveyed to test internal structure and consistency (n = 355), establish convergent and discriminant evidence (n = 351), and measure test-retest reliability (n = 242) of the developed tool. Results: Development and revisions in Phase I and content and face validation resulted in a 13-question survey consisting of four primary constructs of behavior (4 items), environment (2 items), attitudes (5 items), and nutrition knowledge (2 items). In Phase II, factor analysis resulted in one factor of “bean consumption” being created from combining attitude and behavior questions, with factor loadings from .77 to .94. However, two environment and two knowledge questions were retained due to perceived relevancy. The internal consistency was α = 0.97 for the “bean consumption” construct (8 items) and α = 0.96 for the entire survey (12 items). The knowledge construct was validated by those that had taken an introductory nutrition course having significantly higher mean knowledge scores than those that had not taken an introductory nutrition course (p < 0.001; 3.05 ±.89 vs. 2.30 ± 1.62, respectively). The test-retest results ranged from r =.480 to .825 with all correlations being statistically significant (p < 0.01). The average total score for the pilot testing was 33.7 (± 27) out of a possible 100 points. Conclusion: This validated survey may be used in future research to examine the B. E. A. N. of college students regarding beans. This knowledge may be valuable in developing future effective health promotion interventions with college students.
Bean Intake, College Students, Survey Development
To cite this article
Morgan F. Sowers, Sarah E. Colby, Chelsea L. Allison, Wenjun Zhou, Development and Validation of a B. E. A. N. Survey for College Students, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 2, 2018, pp. 37-45. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20180602.11
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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