Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Some Indices of Liver, Kidney Function and Lipid Profile in Theobromine Intoxicated Male Albino Wistar Rats
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 6, Issue 4, July 2018, Pages: 106-114
Received: Aug. 6, 2018; Accepted: Aug. 21, 2018; Published: Sep. 26, 2018
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Edet Okon Akpanyung, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Utibe Evans Bassey, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Natural and Applied Sciences, Obong University, Etim Ekpo, Nigeria
Emem Ekpenyong Udofia, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
Grace Sylvester Effiong, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria
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The effect of ethanol leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina on some indices of liver, kidney function and lipid profile in male albino Wistar rats intoxicated with theobromine was investigated. Thirty (30) male Wistar rats weighing between 140 g – 160 g used for the study were divided into 6 groups with 5 animals in each group. Group I served as control while Group 2 received 700 mg/kg bw of theobromine daily for 4 days. Group 3 received 400 mg/kg bw of V. amygdalina leaf extract daily for 21 days while Groups 4 and 5 were treated with 400 mg/kg bw of V. amygdalina leaf extract for 21 days before and after intoxication with 700 mg/kg bw of theobromine for 4 days respectively. Group 6 was given 700 mg/kg bw of theobromine daily for 4 days and then allowed for 21 days without treatment. Serum was obtained from whole blood and used to determine activities of some serum enzymes and lipid profile as well as kidney function. The liver, kidney and heart were excised and used for histological studies. The results show significantly increased serum enzyme activities, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentration in Group 2 compared to the control (P < 0.05). HDL cholesterol was significantly decreased in theobromine treated group when compared to Group 1 (P < 0.05). Administration of V. amygdalina leaf extract alone showed results close to those of the control. Group 4 showed decreased serum enzyme activities, decreased concentration of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol while HDL cholesterol was increased significantly when compared to Group 2. Group 5 also showed a significant difference in the biochemical indices when compared to Group 2 while Group 6 show decreased serum enzyme activity that was significant when compared to Group 2. The urea and creatinine concentrations were significantly increased in theobromine intoxicated animals while administration of Vernonia amygdalina normalised these parameters. Histology of the liver, kidney and heart revealed altered cellular architecture following administration of theobromine (Group 2) while normal histological features were restored after treatment with ethanol leaf extract of V. amygdalina. The study has demonstrated that ethanol leaf extract of Vernonia amygdalina ameliorate and protect liver, kidney and heart of male albino Wistar rats against theobromine induced toxicity and modulates the adverse effects on lipid profile.
Vernonia amygdalina, Theobromine Toxicity, Lipid Profile, Liver Enzyme Activities, Kidney Function
To cite this article
Edet Okon Akpanyung, Utibe Evans Bassey, Emem Ekpenyong Udofia, Grace Sylvester Effiong, Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Vernonia amygdalina on Some Indices of Liver, Kidney Function and Lipid Profile in Theobromine Intoxicated Male Albino Wistar Rats, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 6, No. 4, 2018, pp. 106-114. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20180604.13
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