Supplementation of Infant Formula with Probiotics, Prebiotics, DHA & ARA: A Systematic Review
Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
Volume 2, Issue 4, July 2014, Pages: 185-194
Received: Jul. 14, 2014; Accepted: Jul. 30, 2014; Published: Aug. 10, 2014
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Authors
Tambakhe M. K., Department of Chemical Technology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, 444602
Pawar P. A., Department of Chemical Technology, Sant Gadge Baba Amravati University, Amravati, Maharashtra, India, 444602
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Abstract
There are recommendations to guide parents to help their infants make the transition from milk to weaning foods, but they differ in their focus in developed or developing countries and on the physiological and behavioral reasons that underlie the introduction of weaning foods. According to recommendations, ideally, term infants should begin weaning at six months, while breastfeeding should continue for two years. The recommendations on nutrients in complementary foods are based on the nutrient gap between the composition and volume of breast milk after approximately six months of exclusive breastfeeding and the physiology of infant nutritional requirements. Gastrointestinal flora influences health, but the composition of flora can be changed with prebiotics or probiotics. The addition of probiotics to powdered infant formula has not been demonstrated to be harmful to healthy term infants. ESPGHAN Committee on Nutrition reviews the effect of adding probiotic bacteria to infant formulas, follow-on formulas and special medical foods. The administration of probiotic (single or in combination) supplementation in infant or follow-on formula, and given beyond early infancy, may be associated with some clinical benefits, such as a reduction in the risk of nonspecific gastrointestinal infections, a reduced risk of antibiotic use and a lower frequency of colic and irritability. The addition of prebiotics to infant formula softens stools but other putative effects remain to be demonstrated. Studies published post marketing shows that infant fed a long-chain inulin/galactooligosaccharide mixture (0.8 g/dl) in formula normally have no side – effects. The addition of same mixture at a concentration of 0.8 g/dl to infant formula was therefore recognized as safe by European Commission in 2001 but follow – up studies were recommended. It is thought that a bifidogenic effect is beneficial for the infant host. The rising incidence in allergy during the first year of life may justify the attempts to modulate the infant’s formula. In addition to prebiotic and probiotic, DHA and ARA are important for brain and eye development. Many researchers have demonstrated the role of DHA and ARA in infant health and development.
Keywords
Weaning, Probiotic, Prebiotic, DHA, ARA
To cite this article
Tambakhe M. K., Pawar P. A., Supplementation of Infant Formula with Probiotics, Prebiotics, DHA & ARA: A Systematic Review, Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 4, 2014, pp. 185-194. doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20140204.24
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