A Comparison of Internal/External Rotation Strength and Range of Motion in the Shoulder Joint between Zurkhaneh Athletes and Non-Athletes
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 1, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages: 39-43
Received: Aug. 2, 2013; Published: Sep. 10, 2013
Views 3068      Downloads 346
Hamid Dehnavi, Sama Technical and Vocational Training College, Islamic Azad University, Neyshabur Branch, Neyshabur, Iran
Hassan Daneshmandi, Associate professor of Guilan University, Iran
Mohammad khajehpoor Glosalari, Msc Student of sport injury and corrective exercise, Islamic Azad University Khorasgan(Isfahan) Branch, Iran
Hossein Shahrokhi, PhD student of Kharazmi University, Iran
Article Tools
Follow on us
Zurkhaneh as one the oldest sport is include many overhead movements. The purpose of this study was comparison between ratio of strength and range of motion in internal and external rotation in the shoulder joint’s zurkhaneh athletes with Non-athletes. The subjects in this study included 29 zurkhaneh athletes with mean age (23.51±2.04) and mean years of sport history (8.75±4.47) and 30 non-athletes athletes with mean age (24.8±1.56). Data were collected through questionnaires, and subjects' strength was measured by “Hand-held dynamometer” and ROM was measured by “Leighton flexometer”(r=0.90–0.99) in both upper extremities. Data were analyzed by paired samples t-test and independent samples t-test. The results of this study showed significant degrees at internal/external rotation ROM ratio of zurkhaneh athletes than the non-athletes group (p≥0.05). some result also was found in strength ratio in internal/external rotators in this group (p≥0.001). Therefore repeated pattern of movements in the zurkhaneh sport at the long time causes imbalance in strength and range of motion shoulder joint that need to corrective exercise. It can be included due to specific demands such as repeated rotational movements in shoulder joint, they need a compensatory corrective exercises.
Zurkhaneh, Strength, Range of Motion, Shoulder Joint
To cite this article
Hamid Dehnavi, Hassan Daneshmandi, Mohammad khajehpoor Glosalari, Hossein Shahrokhi, A Comparison of Internal/External Rotation Strength and Range of Motion in the Shoulder Joint between Zurkhaneh Athletes and Non-Athletes, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 1, No. 3, 2013, pp. 39-43. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20130103.13
Anderson M K, Hall S J, Martin M. (2004) Foundations of athletic training: Prevention, assessment and management (3rd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Publishing.
Alderink Gj, Kuck DJ. (1986). Isokinetic shoulder strength of high school and college-Aged pitchers. Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 7(4):163-72
Arroyo JS, Hershon SJ, Bigliani LU. (1997). Special considerations in the athletic throwing shoulder. Orthop Clin North Am. 28(1):69-78.
Beach ML, Whitney SL, Dickoff-Hoffman SA. (1992). Relationship of shoulder flexibility, strength, and endurance to shoulder pain in competitive swimmers. Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 16(6):262-8.
Brown LP, Niehues SL, Harrah A, Yavorsky P, Hirshman HP. (1988). Upper extremity range of motion and isokinetic strength of the internal and external shoulder rotators in major league baseball players. Am J Sports Med. 16(6):577-85.
Burkhart SS, Morgan CD, Kibler WB. (2003). The disabled throwing shoulder: spectrum Of pathology, part I:pathoanatomy and biomechanics. Arthroscopy. 19(4):404–420.
Cadogan A, Laslett M, Hing W, McNair P, Williams M. (2011). Reliability of a new hand-held dynamometer in Measuring shoulder range of motion and strength. Man Ther. 16(1):97-101.
Chandler TJ, Kibler WB, Uhl TL, Wooten B, Kiser A, Stone E. (1990). Flexibility comparisons of junior elite tennis players to other athletes. Am J Sports Med. 18(2):134-6.
Cools M Ann, Witvrouw E Erik, Mahieu N Nele, Danneels A Lieven. (2005). Isokinetic Scapular Muscle Performance in Overhead Athletes with and Without Impingement Symptoms. Journal of Athletic Training. 40(2):104-110.
Daneshmandi H, Rahmaninia F, Shahrokhi H, Rahmani P, Esmaeili S. (2010). Shoulder joint flexibility in top athletes. J. Biomedical Science and Engineering. 3(8):811-815
Ellenbecker T, Robert EP. (2003). Age specific isokinetic glenohumeral internal and external rotation strength in elite junior tennis players. Journal of science and medicine in sport. 6(1):63-70.
Greenfield BH, Donatelli R, Wooden MJ, Wilkes J. (1990). Isokinetic evaluation of shoulder rotational strength between the plane of scapula and the frontal plane. Am J Sports Med. 18(2):124–8.
Hartsell HD, Forwell L. (1997). Postoperative eccentric and concentric isokinetic strength for the shoulder rotators in the scapular and neutral planes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 25(1):19–25.
Crockett HC, Gross LB, Wilk KE, Schwartz ML, Reed J, O'Mara J, Reilly MT, Dugas JR, Meister K, Lyman S, Andrews JR. (2002). Osseous adaptation and range of motion at the glenohumeral joint in professional baseball pitchers. Am J Sports Med. 30(1):20-6
Kuhlman JR, Iannotti JP, Kelly MJ, Riegler FX, Gevaert ML, Ergin TM. (1992). Isokinetic and isometric measurement of strength of external rotation and abduction of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 74(9):1320–33.
Leroux JL, Hebert P, Mouilleron P, Thomas E, Bonnel F, Blotman F. (1995). Postoperative shoulder rotators strength in stages II and III impingement syndrome. Clin Orthop Relat Res. (320):46–54.
Magnusson SP, Constantini NW, McHugh MP, Gleim GW. (1995). Strength profiles and performance in masters' level swimming. Am J Sports Med. 23(5):626-631.
McMaster WC, Long SC, Caiozzo VJ. (1992). Shoulder torque changes in the swimming athlete. Am J Sports Med. 20(3): 323-7.
Pink MM, Tibone JE. (2000). The painful shoulder in the swimming athlete. Orthop Clin North Am. 31(2):247–261.
Ramsi M, Swanik A Kathleen, Straub J Stephen, Mattacola G Carl. (2004). Shoulder-Rotator Strength of High School Swimmers over the Course of a Competitive Season. J Sport Rehabil. 13(1):9-18.
This LL, Maxwell T. (1996). The effect of positioning on shoulder isokinetic measures in females. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 28(9):1188–92.
Whitcomb LJ, Kelley MJ, Leiper CI. (1995). A comparison of torque production during dynamic strength testing of shoulder abduction in the coronal plane and the plane of the scapula. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 21(4):227–32.
Wilk KE, Meister K, Andrews JR. (2002). Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete. Am J Sports Med. 30(1):136–151.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186