American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 2, Issue 5, September 2014, Pages: 115-121
Received: Aug. 18, 2014;
Accepted: Aug. 29, 2014;
Published: Sep. 20, 2014
Views 3098 Downloads 412
Pouya Jalilian, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
Patrick K. Kreun, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
MohammadHady M. Makhmalbaf, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
William W. Liou, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008, USA
Recent advances in the computing power of modern computers have made computational fluid dynamics studies particularly interesting and feasible. We used the computational fluid dynamics method to solve the physical governing equations of the air flow around balls of popular sports in typical game conditions and investigated their aerodynamics and the flight characteristics. The work presented here describes the construction of the computational fluid dynamics models for a baseball, volleyball and two soccer balls, and the use of these models to analyze the effects of spin rate, surface pattern, and size for their respective sports. The computational results show significant correlations between ball spin rate and the aerodynamics forces, including drag and lift, for soccer ball, baseball and volleyball. For the baseball, the lift and lateral forces are shown to have also been influenced by the lace orientation.
Patrick K. Kreun,
MohammadHady M. Makhmalbaf,
William W. Liou,
Computational Aerodynamics of Baseball, Soccer Ball and Volleyball, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 2, No. 5,
2014, pp. 115-121.
Alam, F., Chowdhury, H., Moria, H., Fuss, F. K., Khan, I., Aldawi, F., & Subic, A. (2011). Aerodynamics of contemporary FIFA soccer balls. Procedia Engineering, 13, 188-193.
Alam, F., Ho, H., Chowdhury, H., & Subic, A. (2011). Aerodynamics of baseball. Procedia Engineering, 13, 207-212.
Alam, F., Chowdhury, H., Stemmer, M., Wang, Z., & Yang, J. (2012). Effects of surface structure on soccer ball aerodynamics. Procedia Engineering, 34, 146-151.
Alam, F., Ho, H., Smith, L., Subic, A., Chowdhury, H., & Kumar, A. (2012). A study of baseball and softball aerodynamics. Procedia Engineering, 34, 86-91.
ANSYS, Inc. (2010) ANSYS Meshing User’s Guide
Asai, T., Seo, K., Kobayashi, O., & Sakashita, R. (2007). Fundamental aerodynamics of the soccer ball. Sports Engineering, 10(2), 101-109.
Asai, T., Ito, S., Seo, K., & Hitotsubashi, A. (2010). Aerodynamics of a new volleyball. Procedia Engineering, 2(2), 2493-2498.
Barber, S., Chin, S. B., & Carré, M. J. (2009). Sports ball aerodynamics: a numerical study of the erratic motion of soccer balls. Computers & Fluids,38(6), 1091-1100.
Barber, S., & Carré, M. J. (2010). The effect of surface geometry on soccer ball trajectories. Sports Engineering, 13(1), 47-55.
Carré, M. J., Asai, T., Akatsuka, T., & Haake, S. J. (2002). The curve kick of a football II: flight through the air. Sports Engineering, 5(4), 193-200.
Goff, J. E., & Carré, M. J. (2009). Trajectory analysis of a soccer ball. American Journal of Physics, 77(11), 1020-1027.
Goff, J. E., & Carré, M. J. (2010). Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis. European Journal of Physics, 31(4), 775.
Goodwill, S. R., Chin, S. B., & Haake, S. J. (2004). Aerodynamics of spinning and non-spinning tennis balls. Journal of wind engineering and industrial aerodynamics, 92(11), 935-958.
Mehta, R. D. (1985). Aerodynamics of sports balls. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 17(1), 151-189.
Mizota, T., Kurogi, K., Ohya, Y., Okajima, A., Naruo, T., & Kawamura, Y. (2013). The strange flight behaviour of slowly spinning soccer balls. Scientific reports, 3.
Newton, I. (1672). A new theory about light and colors. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 80, 3075-3087
Niven, L. (2012) https://grabcad.com/library/soccer-ball--2 /files/practice.SLDPRT
Oggiano, L., & Sætran, L. (2010). Aerodynamics of modern soccer balls.Procedia Engineering, 2(2), 2473-2479.
Pallis, J. M., & Mehta, R. D. (2002). Aerodynamics and hydrodynamics in sports. The Engineering of Sport, 4, 31-39.
Somers, Trip. (2013). Justin Verlander, Detroit Tigers - PITCHf/x Pitcher Profile. http://pitchfx.texasleaguers.com/pitcher/434378/
Thompson,S.(2012),https://grabcad.com/library/86-panel -soccer-ball design /files / 86%20panel%20dome.SLDPRT