Effects of Muscle Energy Technique in Increasing Range of Motion and Strength of Glenohumeral Internal Rotator, in Athletes with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 4, Issue 2, March 2016, Pages: 43-48
Received: Feb. 3, 2016; Accepted: Feb. 19, 2016; Published: Mar. 28, 2016
Views 6523      Downloads 259
Sonakshi Sehgal, Department of Physiotherapy, Sardar Bhagwan Singh (PG) Institute of Biomedical Sciences & Research, Dehradun, India
Siddhartha Sen, Department of Physiotherapy, Sardar Bhagwan Singh (PG) Institute of Biomedical Sciences & Research, Dehradun, India
Amit Dhawan, Department of Physiotherapy, Sardar Bhagwan Singh (PG) Institute of Biomedical Sciences & Research, Dehradun, India
Article Tools
Follow on us
Study design: Randomized control trial. Objective: To measure the effect muscle energy technique(MET) for the glenohumeral joint external rotators to improve the range of motion and strength of internal rotators in athletes with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (GIRD). Background: Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit is one of the leading causes of impairments in overhead throwing athletes. Anatomical GIRD is though considered to be normal in overhead athletes but it may further lead to osseous and capsuloligamentous changes in the glenohumeral joint if not treated. The muscle energy technique protocol aimed at improving the range of motion and strength of the internal rotators of the glenohumeral joint. It has been hypothesized that MET will increase the glenohumeral internal rotation ROM and strength in athletes with GIRD. Methods: thirty overhead athletes were conveniently assigned in two groups. MET for glenohumeral joint external rotators (n=15) and stretching for glenohumeral joint external rotators (n=15). We measured the range of motion of glenohumeral joint internal rotation and strength of glenohumeral joint internal rotators, of the dominant shoulder at 0 day, 1st week and 2nd week. At the end of 2nd week data analysis was done using one way ANOVA and post hoc tukey’s test and significant results were found. (p < 0.05). Results: The group treated with MET for the external rotators had a significant increase in internal rotation at the end of 2nd week. The group treated with stretching for external rotators do not showed a significant increase in internal rotation. Conclusion: It is concluded that MET is an effective treatment for increasing the ROM and strength of internal rotation at the glenohumeral joint in asymptomatic overhead athletes. Therefore application of MET for the external rotators may be useful for increasing the ROM as well as strength in overhead athletes.
Manual Therapy, Athletes, Stretching, Shoulder Joint Internal Rotation
To cite this article
Sonakshi Sehgal, Siddhartha Sen, Amit Dhawan, Effects of Muscle Energy Technique in Increasing Range of Motion and Strength of Glenohumeral Internal Rotator, in Athletes with Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 4, No. 2, 2016, pp. 43-48. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20160402.14
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
B. Chakradhar Reddy, Santosh Metgud, A randomized controlled trial to compare the effect of muscle energy technique with conventional therapy in stage ii adhesive capsulitis, 2014 Int J Physiother Res; 2(3): 549-54.
Charles I. Dillman, Biomechanics of Pitching with Emphasis upon Shoulder Kinematics, 1993 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 18: 402-408.
D L Falla, S Hess, C Richardson, Evaluation of shoulder internal rotator muscle strength in baseball players with physical signs of glenohumeral joint instability, 2003, Br J Sports Med; 37: 430–432.
Elizabeth E. Hibberd, Casey E. Shutt, Sakiko Oyama, Physical contributors to glenohumeral internal rotation deficit in high school baseball players, 2014, Journal of Sport and Health Science 1-8.
F. H. Savoie, Arthroscopic Examination of the Throwing Shoulder, 1993 JOSPT; 18: 409-41.
Hugue Ouellette et al, Spectrum of shoulder injuries in the baseball pitcher, 2007 Skeletal Radiol; 37: 491–498.
Jacquelyn M. Downar; Eric L. Sauers, Clinical measures of shoulder mobility in the professional baseball player, 2005 Journal of Athletic Training; 40(1): 23–29.
Jason B. Lunden, Mike Muffenbier, M. Russell Giveans, Cort J. Cieminski, Reliability of Shoulder Internal Rotation Passive Range of Motion Measurements in the Supine Versus Sidelying Position, 2010, J Orthop Sports Physical Therapy; 40: 589-594.
Jinyoung Lee, Li-Na Kim, Hongsun Song, Sunghwan Kim,, The Effect of Glenohumeral Internal Rotation Deficit on the Isokinetic Strength, Pain, and Quality of Life in Male High School Baseball Players, 2015, Ann Rehabil Med; 39(2): 183-190.
Juneja H, Verma, S. K., Khanna,, Isometric Peak Force of Shoulder Rotators in Cricketers with and without History of Shoulder Pain, 2011 Journal of Exercise Science and Physiotherapy; 7 (1): 42-49.
Kevin E. Wilk, Todd R. Hooks, Leonard C. Macrina, 2013, J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 43: 891-894.
Kisner And Colby, Therapeutic exercise foundation and technique, 5th edition.
Leandro Anonietti, Natalia Luna, Gabreil Nogueira et al, Reliability Index of inter- and intra-rater of manual goniometry and computerized biophotogrammetry to assess the range of motion of internal and external shoulder rotation, 2014 Medical express; 1(2): 95-99.
Lean Chaitow, Musc e Energy Techniques, third edition, London UK; Churchill Livingstone page no. 1.
Mark G Grossman MG, A Cadaveric Model of the Throwing Shoulder: A Possible Etiology of Superior Labrum Anterior-to-Posterior Lesions, 2005 J Bone Joint Surg Am; 87 (4): 824-831.
Michael R. Borich, Scapular angular positioning at end range internal rotation in cases of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit2006 J Orthop Sports Phys Ther; 36(12): 926-934.
Reagan KM, humeral retroversion and its relationship to glenohumeral rotation in the shoulder of college baseball player, 2002, The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine.
Richa Mahajan, Chitra Kataria, Kshitija Bansal, Comparative effectiveness of Muscle Energy Technique and static stretching for treatment of subacute mechanical neck pain, 2012, International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences; 1 (1): 16-23.
Robert C. Manske, Matt Meschke, Andrew Porter,, A Randomized Controlled Single-Blinded Comparison of Stretching Versus Stretching and Joint Mobilization for Posterior Shoulder Tightness Measured by Internal Rotation Motion Loss, 2010 Sports Health, vol 2, no. 2.
Roy Aldridge, J. Stephen Guffey, Malcolm T. Whitehead, Penny Head, 2012, The International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy; 7(4): 365.
Russel F. Warren, Edward V Craig, David W. Altchek, The unstable shoulder, Lippincot.
Sean P. McCully, Internal and external rotation of the shoulder: effects of plane, end-range determination, and scapular motion, 2005, J Shoulder Elbow Surg pg: 602-610.
Soung Yob R, Wi-Young, Analysis of Range of Motion and Isokinetic Strength of Internal and External Rotation According to Humeral Retroversion of the Dominant Shoulder in Youth Baseball Players, Iranian J Publ Health, 2014; 43: 178-184.
Stephanie D. Moore, Kevin G. Laudner, Todd A. Mcloda,, The Immediate Effects of Muscle Energy Technique on Posterior Shoulder Tightness, 2014 Journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy; 41: 400-407.
Steven J Karageanes, Principles of Manual Sports Medicine, Lippincott William & Wilkin.
Terry R. Melone, Thomas Mc Poil, Orthopaedics And Sports Physical Therapy, Third Edition.
Valquiria Nunes, Assessment of deficit in medial rotation and posterior shortening of the shoulder in professional basketball player, 2012 Rev Bras Med Esporte – Vol. 18, No 3.
William Cornelis, Biomechanical Relationships within the Shoulder Joint. USA Gymnastics Online: Technique, May 1998, Vol. 18, No. 5.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186