American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 5, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 27-30
Received: Jul. 7, 2017;
Accepted: Sep. 7, 2017;
Published: Oct. 12, 2017
Views 1747 Downloads 99
Tiiu Olm, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia
Karin Baskin, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia
Kadri Herde, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University, Tallinn, Estonia
This work concentrates on the analysis of the echocardiographic part of our complex investigation which determined the characteristics of work capacity, the cardio-respiratory system and the nervous system. Professional healthy male soccer players of the best clubs of Estonia (n=236) aged 17 to 31 years were examined. Athletes were divided into three age groups. All tests were performed in the same training period. The statistical analysis of all characteristics (ANOVA-test, Pearson product moment correlation) allows us to conclude that the character of heart development depends on age. Soccer’s sport-specific effect on heart produces an adaption where both the dilatation and the wall thickening of the heart occur moderately but not at the same time.
Age-Specific Features of Soccer Players' Heart Dimensions, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 5, No. 5,
2017, pp. 27-30.
Utomi V, Oxborough D, Whyte GP, Somauroo J, Sharma S, Shave R, Atkinson G, George K. Systematic review and meta-analysis of training mode, imaging modality and body size influences on the morphology and function of the male athlete´sheart. Heart. 2013 Dec; 99(23): 1727-33.
DuBois D, DuBois D F. A formula to estimate the approximate surface area if height and weight be known. Nutrition. 1989; 5: 303-11.
Tadros T M, Klein M D, Shapira O M. Ascending aortic dilatation associated with bicuspid aortic valve: pathophysiology, molecular biology, and clinical implications. Circulation. 2009; 119: 880-890.
D'Andrea A, Cocchia R, Riegler L, Scarafile R, Salerno G, Gravino R, Vriz O, Citro R, Limongelli G, Di Salvo G, Cuomo S, Caso P, Russo MG, Calabro R, Bossone E. Aortic root dimensions in elite athletes. Am J Cardiol. 2010; 105(11): 1629-34.
Iskander A, Thompson P D. A meta-analysis of aortic root size in elite athletes. Circulation. 2013; 127: 791-798.
Pelliccia A 1, Di Paolo F M, De Blasiis E, Quattrini FM, Pisicchio C, Guerra E, Culasso F, Maron B J. Prevalence and clinical significance of aortic root dilation in highly trained competitive athletes. Circulation. 2010 Aug 17; 122(7): 698-706.
Pelliecia A, Maron B J, Di Paolo F M, Biffi A, Quattrini FM, Pisicchio C, Roselli A, Caselli S, Culasso F. Prevalence and clinical significance of LA remodeling in competitive athletes. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Aug 16; 46(4): 690-6.
D´Ascenzi F, Cameli M, Lisi M, Zaca V, Natali B, Malandrino A, Benincasa S, Causarano A, Modillo S. Left atrial remodelling in competitive adolescent soccer players. Int J Sport Med. 2012 Oct; 33(10): 785-801.
Iskander A, Mujtaba M T, Thompson P D. Left Atrium size in Elite Athletes. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2015 Jul; 8(7): 753-62.
Hoogsteen J, Hoogeveen A, Schaffers H, Wijn P F, van der Wall E E. Left atrial and ventricular dimensions in highly trained cyclists. Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2003; 19(3): 211-217.
Barry J. Maron; Antonio Pellicia. The Heart of Trained Athletes. Circulation. 2006; Volume 114: 1633-1644.
Maron B. Sudden death in young athletes. N England J Med. 2003; 349: 1064-1075.
Urhausen A, Monz T, Kindermann W. Echocardiographic Criteria of Physiological Left-Ventricular Hypertrophy in Combined Strength-Trained and Endurance-Trained Athletes. Int Journal Cardiac Imaging. 1997; 13: 43-52.
Whyte, G. P., George, K., Sharma, S., Firoozi, S., Stephens, N., Senior, R. and McKenna, W. J. The upper limit of physiological cardiac hypertrophy in elite male and female athletes: the British experience. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2004; 92: 592-597.
Abernethy W B, Choo JK, Hutter A M Jr. Echocardiographic characteristics of professional football players. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2003; 41(2): 280-4.
Pluim B M, Zwinderman A H, van der Laarse A, et al. The athlete´s heart: a meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation. 1999; 100: 336-44.