Impact of Stability Ball Sitting on Stroke Volume, Oxygen Content Difference, and Heart Rate During Arm Ergometry
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 6, Issue 1, March 2018, Pages: 26-31
Received: Nov. 15, 2017; Accepted: Dec. 15, 2017; Published: Mar. 14, 2018
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Charles Rex Christopher Marks, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Exercise Science Program, Oakland University, Rochester, USA
Cecelia Goulette, Department of Human Movement Sciences, Exercise Science Program, Oakland University, Rochester, USA
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The purpose of this study was to determine the contributions that heart rate (HR), stroke volume (SV), and oxygen content difference (CdO2) make to the elevated oxygen consumption (VO2) due to stability ball (SB) sitting when compared to chair (C) sitting during arm ergometry. Methods: Rest and two stages of exercise were conducted twice, once on a stability ball and once on a chair (order randomized) during aerobic arm cranking. VO2, cardiac output, and HR, were measured at the end of rest and each stage of exercise. SV and CdO2 were calculated from measured parameters. Results: Repeated Measures ANOVA demonstrated that SB was significantly higher than C by 4% to 12% for VO2 (P <.001) and 2% to 4% for HR (P =.016). SB was non-significantly higher by 0.5% to 2.1% for SV (P =.358). In addition, there was a significant interaction with increasing differences between SB and C (1% to 6%) with higher intensities for CdO2 (P =.014). It was concluded that oxygen content differences make a larger contribution to the difference between SB and C at the higher intensity. The patterns of change with exercise for heart rate, stroke volume, and oxygen content difference were similar between SB and C.
Swiss Ball, Aerobic Arm Exercise, Cardiac Output, Oxygen Extraction
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Charles Rex Christopher Marks, Cecelia Goulette, Impact of Stability Ball Sitting on Stroke Volume, Oxygen Content Difference, and Heart Rate During Arm Ergometry, American Journal of Sports Science. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 26-31. doi: 10.11648/j.ajss.20180601.15
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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