American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 7, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 60-71
Received: Mar. 29, 2019;
Accepted: May 5, 2019;
Published: Jun. 5, 2019
Views 207 Downloads 25
Chyong-Huoy Huang, Physical Education Office, National Kaohsiung University of Science and Technology, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
In Taiwan, the government interestingly requires primary school students to be able to swim 15 meters. By analyzing the drowning statics between Y2014 and Y2017, the program seems to be working. Understanding American Academy of Pediatrics’ recommendation that most children age 4 and older should learn to swim, the purpose of this paper was to understand Taiwanese parents’ views and opinions on kindergarteners’ swimming lessons. By looking into parents’ background and experiences, it is possible to construct a picture on the status of children’s swimming before entering primary school and identify opportunities to do better. The target subjects were parents of kindergarteners whom were between 4 and 6 years old. Returned questionnaires were analyzed statistically, and from this the conclusions were drawn. Recommendations were made through literature reviews, online researches and findings. The summary provided below was based on the statistical analysis: (1) Fathers ranked themselves higher on swimming ability than mothers did. (2) More than half of the parents went to swimming once every few months. They liked to go swimming with other family members. (3) Nearly 1/3 of parents thought the best time to learn swimming was between ages of 4 and 5. (4) However, less than 1/4 of parents had helped their child/children signed up for the swimming lessons. Learning to swim before primary school was not popular in Taiwan. (5) Being afraid of water, not interested in swimming, too troublesome were the constraints which affected parents’ willingness to sign up swimming lessons for their child/children. (6) Easy to register, cleanliness of the pool, close proximity to home, and kid-friendly pools were the key factors leading to satisfaction. (7) Parents across all income level believed the cost of the swimming lessons were reasonable. (8) Both fathers and mothers shared similar views on how the classes should be conducted. More mothers preferred having certified professionals and having water safety included in the lesson.
Parents’ Perception of Kindergarteners’ Swimming Lessons in Taiwan, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 7, No. 2,
2019, pp. 60-71.
Labor Women Memorial Park. Wikipedia. https://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E5%8B%9E%E5%8B%95%E5%A5%B3%E6%80%A7%E7%B4%80%E5%BF%B5%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92. Accessed October 25, 2018.
Floodgate of Wai Shuang Xi was released without warning. CTS news. https://news.cts.com.tw/cts/society/201109/201109060817364.html. Accessed March 28, 2019.
Loa, L. S. 2007. Taiwanese kids at unusually high risk of drowning. Taipei Times. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2007/06/23/2003366448. Accessed March 28, 2019.
Statistics. Ministry of Education -Water Safety. http://www.sports.url.tw/home/%E7%B5%B1%E8%A8%88%E6%95%B8%E6%93%9A. Accessed September 30, 2018.
Fire Department Water Rescue Statistics. DATA. GOV. TW. https://data.gov.tw/dataset/7065. Accessed July 10, 2018.
Education in Taiwan. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_Taiwan. Accessed March 27, 2019.
Sales Promotion. Natural Paradise Swimming Diving Club. http://www.dadi99.com.tw/. Accessed January 4, 2019.
Course Description. Nan-Ho Swimming Pools and SPA. http://www.nhspa.com.tw/page/training.html. Accessed January 4, 2019.
Tamkang University. 2017. Swimming class. Available from: http://www.dec.tku.edu.tw/index_2.jsp?pageidx=01&subidx=2206.
Chen XH. Teach swimming – Creative way of swimming teaching method. School Physical Education. 2001; 11 (6): 102-107.
Ministry of Education. Midterm plan of improving students' swimming ability. Taipei: Ministry of Education. 2000.
Chen JP. A study on the effect and obstacles of swimming teaching in Taiwan National Primary School. Journal of Taipei College of Maritime Technology. 2017; 8 (2): 167-180.
Ministry of Education – Water Safety. 2015. Swimming classroom. Available from: http://www.sports.url.tw/classroom/detail/item/5.
Xu CY, Huang GC, Xu NW, Lin JY. Consolidation of public and private swimming pools – Final report of promotion of schools without swimming pools to offer swimming courses off-campus. Taipei: Ministry of Education – Sports Administration. 2018.
Salmonsen R. 2017. Taiwan’s birthrate now world’s 3rd lowest. Taiwan News. Available from: https://www.taiwannews.com.tw/ en/news/3312276.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Swimming programs for infants and toddlers. Pediatrics. 2000; 105 (4): 868-870.
Brenner et al. Association between swimming lessons and drowning in childhood: a case-control study. Archives of Pediatrics Adolescent Medicine. 2009; 163 (3): 203-210.
American Academy of Pediatrics. 2010. AAP gives updated advice on drowning prevention. Available from: https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/pages/AAP-Gives-Updated-Advice-on-Drowning-Prevention.aspx.
Swimming safety tips from the American Academy of pediatrics. American Academy of Pediatrics. https://www.aap.org/en-us/about-the-aap/aap-press-room/news-features-and-safety-tips/Pages/Swim-Safety-Tips.aspx. Accessed October 5, 2018.
Preschoolers (3-5 years of age). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/positiveparenting/preschoolers.html. Accessed February 7, 2019.
Toronto. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Toronto. Accessed January 6, 2019.
Toronto Parks, Forestry and Recreation Division. Wikipedia. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toronto_Parks,_Forestry_and_Recreation_Division. Accessed January 6, 2019.
Toronto Parks, Forestry and Recreation. The FUN Guide. Scarborough District: City of Toronto. 2019.
Crawford DW, Jackson EL, Godbey G. A hierarchical modal of Leisure constraints. Leisure Sciences. 1991; 13: 309-320.
Crawford DW, Godbey, G. Reconceptualizing barriers to family leisure. Leisure Sciences. 1987; 9: 119-127.
Godbey G, Crawford, DW, Shen XS. Assessing hierarchical leisure constraints theory after two decades. Journal of Leisure Research. 2010; 42 (1): 111-134.
Beard JG, Ragheb, MG. Measuring leisure satisfaction. Journal of Leisure Research. 1980; 12 (1): 20-33.
Campbell A. The sense of well-being in America. New York: McGraw Hill. 1980.
Mannell R, “Leisure Satisfaction,” in Jackson E. and Burton T., Eds. Understanding Leisure and recreation: Mapping the past, charting the future (pp. 281-301). State College, PA: Venture Publishing. 1989.
Main statistical table – past years. Department of Statistics. https://depart.moe.edu.tw/ed4500/cp.aspx?n=1B58E0B736635285&s=D04C74553DB60CAD. Accessed February 26, 2018.
Ke HX, Ding LH, Lu CX, Su ZX, Xie BC. Market Survey. Taipei: Taiwan Knowledge Bank Co., Ltd. 2002.
Central News Agency. 2009. Average age for first marriage rises in Taiwan: statistics. Taiwan News. Available from: https://www.taiwan news.com.tw/en/news/975507.
The formulation and adjustment of basic wages. Ministry of Labor. https://www.mol.gov.tw/topic/3067/5990/13171/19154/. Accessed January 10, 2019.
Everington K. Average monthly salary in Taiwan rose to NT$40,792 in April. Taiwan News. http://www.taiwannews.com.tw/en/ news/3456289. Accessed January 10, 2019.
Wang JS, Fang PH, Yang, HT. Gender effects on college students’ self-determined participation motivation of leisure sport. Bulletin of Sport and Exercise Psychology of Taiwan. 2014; 14 (2): 51-65.
Yang LM & Chen CM. The influences of exercise participation, indoor stadiums image and using satisfaction: An analysis in female perspectives. NCYU Physical Education, Health & Recreation Journal. 2016; 15 (2): 1-13.
American National Red Cross. 2017. Swim classes & lessons. Available from: http://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/swimmin g?latitude=38.8964&longitude=-77.044701.
Canadian Red Cross. 2016. Swimming and water safety. Available from: http://www.redcross.ca/in-your-community/ontario/swimm ing-and-water-safety.
Chang HC, Chen JF. The Impact of the Characteristics of Children's Sports Participation on Body Mass Index. Journal of Sport, Leisure and Hospitality Research. 2010; 5 (4): 50-60.
Zhang JY. Investigation of the constraints in student swimming classes. Journal of Tamkang Sports. 2011; 14: 115-122.
Beruk off KD, Hill GM. A study of factors that influence the swimming performance of Hispanic high school students. International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education. 2010; 4: 409-421.