Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 78-87
Received: Mar. 10, 2019;
Accepted: Jun. 10, 2019;
Published: Jul. 30, 2019
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Yayun Liu, College of Physical Education, Hunan University of Technology, Hunan, China
Leon Chen, College of Physical Education, Hunan University of Technology, Hunan, China
Xiaofen Keating, Department of Curriculum Instruction, University of Texas, Austin, USA
Mark Still, Department of Sport Management, Delaware State University, Dover, USA
Shihui Chen, College of Education, Texas A & M University, Texarkana, USA
Research in consumer motivation might ignore auto racing sport that features the number one of fan attendance for single sport event in America. What would be the explicit motives to push individuals themselves or the incentives to pull the spectators with attractive benefits of NASCAR events? If motives exist among the NASCAR fans, would there be a need to discover them with an appropriate measurement tool? This study was conducted to explore specific motives of NASCAR spectators, and develop valid and reliable instrument underlying motivational theories. Participants (N = 650) voluntarily responded to Inventory of Motivation for Auto Racing Spectators (IMARS) in a NASCAR event. Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses were utilized to explore and confirm the 5-factor (Affiliation, Experience, Gratification, Socialization, and Substance) model with 15 indicators. The statistical analyses revealed acceptable goodness fit indexes of IMARS by the observed data (X2/df = 3/63, GFI = .95, CFI = .92, IFI = .91, RMSR = .036). The validities and internal consistency reliability were examined with satisfactory results. The essential motives were explored in this study and a reliable instrument for utility of NASCAR marketing professionals was produced. The study provided quantitative evidences to support the motivation theories and enriched spectator motivation in sport motivation literatures.
Analyzing Motivation Factors for NASCAR Spectators with Self-Determination Theory, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 7, No. 3,
2019, pp. 78-87.
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