Influence of Age, Ethnicity and Sex on Body Composition Thresholds for the Accumulation of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults
American Journal of Sports Science
Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 111-120
Received: Jun. 26, 2019;
Accepted: Aug. 4, 2019;
Published: Aug. 23, 2019
Views 490 Downloads 99
Rachel Marie Watson, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA
Philip Ray Stanforth, Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA
Anna Elizabeth Talley, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, USA
Matthew Alan Stults-Kolehmainen, Bariatric Surgery Program, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, USA; Department of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College, Columbia University, New York, USA
The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of age, ethnicity, and sex on the body fat percentage (BF%) threshold, the point above which visceral adipose tissue (VAT) increases more rapidly. Participants were 1,756 females and 1,455 males, 18-75 years of age, who had a dual X-ray absorptiometry scan. Using segmented linear regression models for each sex and ethnicity category, the BF% thresholds were identified. The BF% thresholds for females were: Asian 29.2%, Black 35.6%, Hispanic 31.7%, and White 34.2%. For males, they were: Asian 25.3%, Black 23.9%, Hispanic 24.3%, and White 22.8%. Post-threshold, the impact of BF% was amplified for older females (β = 0.28, SE =0.03, p < .001) and males (β = 0.81, SE = 0.06, p < .001). BF% had a weaker association with VAT mass for Black compared to White females (β = -3.05, SE = 1.44, p < .05) and Asian compared to White males (β = -11.40, SE = 2.30, p < .001). The BF% threshold was higher in females and varied more with ethnicity in females. Post-threshold the association of BF% with VAT differed by age and ethnicity, although the influence of ethnicity was different in females than males.
Rachel Marie Watson,
Philip Ray Stanforth,
Anna Elizabeth Talley,
Matthew Alan Stults-Kolehmainen,
Influence of Age, Ethnicity and Sex on Body Composition Thresholds for the Accumulation of Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults, American Journal of Sports Science.
Vol. 7, No. 3,
2019, pp. 111-120.
Organization WH: Obesity and Overweight Fact Sheet, 2016,
Bhaskaran K, Douglas I, Forbes H, dos-Santos-Silva I, Leon DA, Smeeth L: Body-mass index and risk of 22 specific cancers: a population-based cohort study of 5· 24 million UK adults. The Lancet 2014; 384: 755-765.
De Koning L, Merchant AT, Pogue J, Anand SS: Waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular events: meta-regression analysis of prospective studies. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 850-856.
Yatsuya H, Li Y, Hilawe EH, Ota A, Wang C, Chiang C, Zhang Y, Uemura M, Osako A, Ozaki Y: Global trend in overweight and obesity and its association with cardiovascular disease incidence. Circ J 2014; 78: 2807-2818.
Rothney MP, Catapano AL, Xia J, Wacker WK, Tidone C, Grigore L, Xia Y, Ergun DL: Abdominal visceral fat measurement using dual‐energy X‐ray: Association with cardiometabolic risk factors. Obesity 2013; 21: 1798-1802.
Mongraw-Chaffin M, Allison MA, Burke GL, Criqui MH, Matsushita K, Ouyang P, Shah RV, Shay CM, Anderson CAM: CT-Derived Body Fat Distribution and Incident Cardiovascular Disease: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2017; 102: 4173-4183.
Choi YJ, Seo YK, Lee EJ, Chung Y-S: Quantification of visceral fat using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and its reliability according to the amount of visceral fat in Korean adults. J Clin Densitom 2015; 18: 192-197.
Kaul S, Rothney MP, Peters DM, Wacker WK, Davis CE, Shapiro MD, Ergun DL: Dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry for quantification of visceral fat. Obesity 2012; 20: 1313-1318.
Neeland IJ, Grundy SM, Li X, Adams-Huet B, Vega GL: Comparison of visceral fat mass measurement by dual-X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging in a multiethnic cohort: the Dallas Heart Study. Nutr Diabetes 2016; 6: e221.
Bosch TA, Burruss TP, Weir NL, Fielding KA, Engel BE, Weston TD, Dengel DR: Abdominal body composition differences in NFL football players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 2014; 28: 3313-3319.
Bosch TA, Steinberger J, Sinaiko AR, Moran A, Jacobs DR, Kelly AS, Dengel DR: Identification of sex‐specific thresholds for accumulation of visceral adipose tissue in adults. Obesity 2015; 23: 375-382.
Bosch TA, Chow L, Dengel DR, Melhorn SJ, Webb M, Yancey D, Callahan H, De Leon MRB, Tyagi V, Schur EA: In adult twins, visceral fat accumulation depends more on exceeding sex-specific adiposity thresholds than on genetics. Metabolism 2015; 64: 991-998.
Beasley LE, Koster A, Newman AB, Javaid MK, Ferrucci L, Kritchevsky SB, Kuller LH, Pahor M, Schaap LA, Visser M, Rubin SM, Goodpaster BH, Harris TB, The Health ABCs: Inflammation and Race and Gender Differences in Computerized Tomography-measured Adipose Depots. Obesity 2009; 17: 1062-1069.
Carroll JF, Chiapa AL, Rodriquez M, Phelps DR, Cardarelli KM, Vishwanatha JK, Bae S, Cardarelli R: Visceral fat, waist circumference, and BMI: impact of race/ethnicity. Obesity 2008; 16: 600-607.
Després J-P, Couillard C, Gagnon J, Bergeron J, Leon AS, Rao DC, Skinner JS, Wilmore JH, Bouchard C: Race, Visceral Adipose Tissue, Plasma Lipids, and Lipoprotein Lipase Activity in Men and Women. The Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training, and Genetics (HERITAGE) Family Study 2000; 20: 1932-1938.
Katzmarzyk PT, Bray GA, Greenway FL, Johnson WD, Newton RL, Ravussin E, Ryan DH, Smith SR, Bouchard C: Racial differences in abdominal depot–specific adiposity in white and African American adults. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2010; 91: 7-15.
Lesser IA, Yew AC, Mackey DC, Lear SA: A cross-sectional analysis of the association between physical activity and visceral adipose tissue accumulation in a multiethnic cohort. J Obes 2012; 2012
Lim U, Ernst T, Buchthal SD, Latch M, Albright CL, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN, Murphy SP, Chang L, Novotny R, Le Marchand L: Asian women have greater abdominal and visceral adiposity than Caucasian women with similar body mass index. Nutrition and Diabetes 2011; 1: e6.
Nazare J-A, Smith JD, Borel A-L, Haffner SM, Balkau B, Ross R, Massien C, Alméras N, Després J-P: Ethnic influences on the relations between abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adiposity, liver fat, and cardiometabolic risk profile: the International Study of Prediction of Intra-Abdominal Adiposity and Its Relationship With Cardiometabolic Risk/Intra-Abdominal Adiposity. The American journal of clinical nutrition 2012; 96: 714-726.
Hoffman DJ, Wang Z, Gallagher D, Heymsfield SB: Comparison of visceral adipose tissue mass in adult African Americans and whites. Obes Res 2005; 13: 66-74.
Demerath EW, Sun SS, Rogers N, Lee M, Reed D, Choh AC, Couch W, Czerwinski SA, Chumlea WC, Siervogel RM: Anatomical patterning of visceral adipose tissue: race, sex, and age variation. Obesity 2007; 15: 2984-2993.
Lear SA, Humphries KH, Kohli S, Chockalingam A, Frohlich JJ, Birmingham CL: Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT). The American journal of clinical nutrition 2007; 86: 353-359.
Araneta MRG, Barrett‐Connor E: Ethnic differences in visceral adipose tissue and type 2 diabetes: Filipino, African‐American, and white women. Obes Res 2005; 13: 1458-1465.
Raji A, Seely EW, Arky RA, Simonson DC: Body fat distribution and insulin resistance in healthy Asian Indians and Caucasians. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 2001; 86: 5366-5371.
Wagenknecht LE, Langefeld CD, Scherzinger AL, Norris JM, Haffner SM, Saad MF, Bergman RN: Insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and abdominal fat. Diabetes 2003; 52: 2490-2496.
Cervantes A, Singh RG, Kim JU, DeSouza SV, Petrov MS: Relationship of Anthropometric Indices to Abdominal Body Composition: A Multi-Ethnic New Zealand Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. J Clin Med Res 2019; 11: 435-446.
Camhi SM, Bray GA, Bouchard C, Greenway FL, Johnson WD, Newton RL, Ravussin E, Ryan DH, Smith SR, Katzmarzyk PT: The Relationship of Waist Circumference and BMI to Visceral, Subcutaneous, and Total Body Fat: Sex and Race Differences. Obesity 2011; 19: 402-408.
Ronn P, Andersen G, Lauritzen T, Christensen D, Aadahl M, Carstensen B, Jorgensen M: Ethnic differences in anthropometric measures and abdominal fat distribution: A cross-sectional pooled study in inuit, africans and europeans. J Epidemiol Community Health 2017; 71: 536-543.
Lee CG, Fujimoto WY, Brunzell JD, Kahn SE, McNeely MJ, Leonetti DL, Boyko EJ: Intra-abdominal fat accumulation is greatest at younger ages in Japanese-American adults. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010; 89: 58-64.
Borkan GA, Hults DE, Gerzof SG, Robbins AH, Silbert CK: Age changes in body composition revealed by computed tomography. J Gerontol 1983; 38: 673-677.
Pascot A, Lemieux S, Lemieux I, Prud'homme D, Tremblay A, Bouchard C, Nadeau A, Couillard C, Tchernof A, Bergeron J: Age-related increase in visceral adipose tissue and body fat and the metabolic risk profile of premenopausal women. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 1471-1478.
Hirose H, Takayama M, Iwao Y, Kawabe H: Effects of aging on visceral and subcutaneous fat areas and on homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and insulin secretion capacity in a comprehensive health checkup. Journal of Atherosclerosis and Rhrombosis 2015; 22: 207-215.
Amdanee N, Di W, Liu J, Yu J, Sheng Y, Lv S, Chattun MR, Hanmei Q, Liu W, Tang L, Ding G: Age‐associated changes of resting energy expenditure, body composition and fat distribution in Chinese Han males. Physiological Reports 2018; 6: e13940.
Szulc P, Duboeuf F, Chapurlat R: Age-Related Changes in Fat Mass and Distribution in Men—the Cross-Sectional STRAMBO Study. J Clin Densitom 2017; 20: 472-479.
Mazess RB, Barden HS, Bisek JP, Hanson J: Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for total-body and regional bone-mineral and soft-tissue composition. The American journal of clinical nutrition 1990; 51: 1106-1112.
Stults-Kolehmainen MA, Stanforth PR, Bartholomew JB: Fat in android, trunk, and peripheral regions varies by ethnicity and race in college aged women. Obesity 2012; 20: 660-665.
Stults-Kolehmainen M, Stanforth P, Bartholomew J, Lu T, Abolt C, Sinha R: DXA estimates of fat in abdominal, trunk and hip regions varies by ethnicity in men. Nutrition & diabetes 2013; 3: e64.
Muggeo VM: Estimating regression models with unknown break-points. Stat Med 2003; 22: 3055-3071.