Factors Affecting the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya
Cancer Research Journal
Volume 6, Issue 3, September 2018, Pages: 106-111
Received: Aug. 14, 2018; Accepted: Sep. 7, 2018; Published: Oct. 11, 2018
Views 376      Downloads 47
Phylis Mbaka, College of Health Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Rebecca Waihenya, Department of Zoology, Jomo Kenyatta Universities of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Christopher Oisebe, School of Economics, the University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya
Raphael Lihana, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre of Virus Research, Nairobi, Kenya
Article Tools
Follow on us
Cervical malignancy afflicts women of all societies. In Kenya, 4,802 women are diagnosed with cervical malignancy and almost 2500 die annually with only 3.2% of cervical screening uptake. The Main goal of this study was to find out the factors that contribute to the uptake of cervical screening at Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital. This was a descriptive and cross-sectional study that used a purposeful sampling method. An interview-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from women and hospital key informants. Multivariate regression was used to analyse associations between study variables. A total of 246 participants were recruited. Uptake of cervical screening was 23.1%, with 83.6% being aware of cervical cancer. Fear of results (69.5%), lack of information (69.8%) and fear of the screening procedure (65.2%) were major cervical screening barriers. Free cervical screening (93.5%) comprehensive cancer health education (90.2%), voluntary cervical screening centres (84.9%), mass media cervical cancer campaigns (83.3%) and cervical cancer screening mobile clinics (81.7%) to be the likely motivators to cervical screening uptake. Multivariate regression showed that older women participated more in uptake than young women (p = 0.001), those who had used contraceptives (p=0.001) and those with higher income (p = 0.03). In conclusion, there was a low uptake of screening for cervical cancer disease. A comprehensive and appropriate sensitization program is required, which eventually may increase uptake of cervical screening.
Cervical Cancer Screening, Uptake, Kenya
To cite this article
Phylis Mbaka, Rebecca Waihenya, Christopher Oisebe, Raphael Lihana, Factors Affecting the Uptake of Cervical Cancer Screening in Mama Lucy Kibaki Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya, Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2018, pp. 106-111. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20180603.16
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
World Health Organization, “Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer,” Fact Sheet, 2015.
WHO/ICO, "Information centre on HPV and cervical cancer HPV information centre and related cancers in Kenya: summary report 2013," 2013.
G. Bruni, L., Barrionuevo-Rosas, L., & Albero, “Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases in Uganda Summary Report 2016,” ICO Inf. Cent. HPV Cancer (HPV Inf. Centre), vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 11–432, 2016.
M. Ngutu and I. K. Nyamongo, “Exploring the barriers to health care and psychosocial challenges in cervical cancer management in Kenya,” Int. J. Womens. Health, vol. 7, pp. 791–798, 2015.
J. Ferlay et al., “Cancer incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012,” Int. J. Cancer, vol. 136, no. 5, pp. E359–E386, 2015.
J. Ferlay, H. R. Shin, F. Bray, D. Forman, C. Mathers, and D. M. Parkin, “Estimates of worldwide burden of cancer in 2008: GLOBOCAN 2008,” Int. J. Cancer, 2010.
R. Dunleavey, Cervical Cancer: A Guide for Nurses. 2009.
Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation and Ministry of Medical Services, “National Cervical Cancer Prevention Program: Strategic Plan 2012 -2015,” no. January 2012, p. 38, 2012.
African Cancer Registry Network, "Nairobi Cancer Registry," 2006.
E. Were, Z. Nyaberi, and N. Buziba, “Perceptions of risk and barriers to cervical cancer screening at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), Eldoret, Kenya,” Afr. Health Sci., 2011.
B. Olowokurb, M. Caswell, and H. V. Duggal, “What women want: Convenient appointment times for cervical screening tests,” European Journal of Cancer Care. 2006.
P. Gichangi et al., “Knowledge and practice about cervical cancer and Pap smear testing among patients at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi, Kenya,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2003.
A. W. Gichogo, “Factors Influencing Utilization of Cervical Cancer Screening Services at Central Province General Hospital, Nyeri, Kenya,” University of Nairobi, 2012.
A. F. Rositch et al., “Knowledge and acceptability of Pap smears, self-sampling and HPV vaccination among adult women in Kenya,” PLoS One, 2012.
E. Ombech, A. Muigai, and P. Wanzala, "Awareness of cervical cancer risk factors and practice of Pap smear testing among female primary school teachers in Kasarani division, Nairobi Kenya.," Afr J Heal. Sci., 2012.
O. A. Ayinde and A. O. Omigbodun, “Knowledge, attitude and practices related to prevention of cancer of the cervix among female health workers in Ibadan.,” J. Obstet. Gynaecol., 2003.
E. P. Gharoro and E. N. Ikeanyi, “An appraisal of the level of awareness and utilization of the Pap smear as a cervical cancer screening test among female health workers in a tertiary health institution,” Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2006.
T. Mutyaba, E. Faxelid, F. Mirembe, and E. Weiderpass, “Influences on uptake of reproductive health services in Nsangi community of Uganda and their implications for cervical cancer screening,” Reprod. Health, 2007.
H. M. Chande and T. Kassim, “Assessment of women’s knowledge and attitude towards carcinoma of the cervix in Ilala Municipality,” East Afr J Public Heal., 2010.
S. C. Mupepi, C. M. Sampselle, and T. R. Johnson, “Knowledge, attitudes, and demographic factors influencing cervical cancer screening behavior of Zimbabwean women,” J Womens Heal., 2011.
S. Aswathy, M. A. Quereshi, B. Kurian, and K. Leelamoni, “Cervical cancer screening: Current knowledge & practice among women in a rural population of Kerala, India.,” Indian J. Med. Res., 2012.
F. S. Lyimo and B. N. Tanya, “Demographic, knowledge, attitudinal, and accessibility factors associated with uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in a rural district of Tanzania: Three public policy implications,” BMC Public Health, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 22, 2012.
A. E. Simon, J. Waller, K. Robb, and J. Wardle, “Patient delay in presentation of possible cancer symptoms: The contribution of knowledge and attitudes in a population sample from the United Kingdom,” Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev., 2010.
J. Siddharthar, B. Rajkumar, and K. Deivasigamani, “Knowledge, Awareness and Prevention of Cervical Cancer among Women Attending a Tertiary Care Hospital in Puducherry, India.,” J. Clin. Diagn. Res., 2014.
P. N. Abotchie and N. K. Shokar, "Cervical cancer screening among college students in Ghana: knowledge and health beliefs.," Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer, 2009.
N. L. Lyttle and K. Stadelman, “Assessing awareness and knowledge of breast and cervical cancer among Appalachian women.,” Prev. Chronic Dis., 2006.
M. Mosavel, C. Simon, C. Oakar, and S. Meyer, “Cervical cancer attitudes and beliefs-A cape town community responds on world cancer day,” J. Cancer Educ., 2009.
N. H. Othman and M. Rebolj, “Challenges to cervical screening in a developing country: The case of Malaysia.,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009.
A. Uysal and A. Birsel, “Knowledge about cervical cancer risk factors and pap testing behaviour among Turkish women,” Asian Pacific J. Cancer Prev., 2009.
J. James, “The knowledge, attitude, practice and perceived barriers towards screening for premalignant cervical lesions among women aged 18years and above, in Songea urban, Ruvuma.,” Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, 2011.
M. Lu, S. Moritz, D. Lorenzetti, L. Sykes, S. Straus, and H. Quan, “A systematic review of interventions to increase breast and cervical cancer screening uptake among Asian women,” BMC Public Health. 2012.
WHO, “Guidelines for screening and treatment of precancerous lesions for cervical cancer prevention,” WHO Guide., p. 60, 2013.
N. H. Othman, B. C. R. Devi, and Y. Halimah, “Cervical cancer screening: patients understanding in major hospitals in Malaysia.,” Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2009.
P. J. F. Snijders et al., “High-risk HPV testing on self-sampled versus clinician-collected specimens: A review on the clinical accuracy and impact on population attendance in cervical cancer screening,” International Journal of Cancer. 2013.
B. Ncube, A. Bey, J. Knight, P. Bessler, and P. E. Jolly, “Factors associated with the uptake of cervical cancer screening among women in Portland, Jamaica,” N. Am. J. Med. Sci., 2015.
C. M. Ndikom and B. A. Ofi, “Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: A qualitative study,” Reprod. Health, 2012.
Science Publishing Group
NEW YORK, NY 10018
Tel: (001)347-688-8931