Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Virus-induced Oncogenesis and Oncolysis
Cancer Research Journal
Volume 7, Issue 3, September 2019, Pages: 87-100
Received: Jun. 4, 2019; Accepted: Jul. 13, 2019; Published: Aug. 15, 2019
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Authors
Ram Kumar, National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India; Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Rajasthan, India
Riyesh Thachamvally, National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India
Sunil Maherchandani, Department of Veterinary Microbiology and Biotechnology, Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Rajasthan, India
Bhupendra Nath Tripathi, National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India
Sanjay Barua, National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India
Naveen Kumar, National Centre for Veterinary Type Cultures, ICAR-National Research Centre on Equines, Hisar, India
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Abstract
Cancer is a leading cause of human deaths worldwide. Besides inherited genetic disorders, a diverse range of physical, chemical and biological agents may induce cancer. About 15-20% of cancers are known to be originated due to pathogens. Viruses are considered to be the second (after smoking) most important risk factor in inducing human cancer. Viruses may either harbour a copy of oncogene or have an ability to alter the expression of cellular copy of the oncogenes. Both RNA and DNA viruses are can induce oncogenesis. Most of the DNA tumour viruses either integrate their genome (complete or part of it) into the host genome or express early genes that are required for early event of virus replication. These early genes are responsible for oncogenic transformation of host cells. Based upon the mechanism involved, oncogenic RNA viruses are divided into two groups-transforming and non-transforming RNA viruses. Transforming RNA viruses carry viral oncogenes that are homologous to the host oncogene, their expression in infected cells results in oncogenic transformation of the cell. Non-transforming RNA viruses induce oncogenesis similar to the DNA viruses. Contrary, oncolytic viruses selectively replicate in cancerous cells and induce cell death without any damage to the normal tissues. Typically, oncolytic viruses are nonpathogenic to humans that can naturally replicate in cancer cells by exploiting oncogenic cell signalling pathways. Pathogenic viruses can also be genetically manipulated which allow them to replicate in cancerous but not in normal cells. This review review describes the molecular mechanisms associated with virus induced oncogenesis and oncolysis.
Keywords
Oncogenic, Oncolytic, Virus
To cite this article
Ram Kumar, Riyesh Thachamvally, Sunil Maherchandani, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi, Sanjay Barua, Naveen Kumar, Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Virus-induced Oncogenesis and Oncolysis, Cancer Research Journal. Vol. 7, No. 3, 2019, pp. 87-100. doi: 10.11648/j.crj.20190703.13
Copyright
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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