The Current Status of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and the Pattern of Lesions in Ochollo Primary School Students, Ochollo, Southwestern Ethiopia
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 3, Issue 6, November 2014, Pages: 111-116
Received: Oct. 3, 2014; Accepted: Oct. 11, 2014; Published: Oct. 30, 2014
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Authors
Gessessew Bugssa, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
Asrat Hailu, Department of Micrbiology, Immunology and Parasitoloogy, Medical faculty, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Balem Demtsu, Department of Midwifery, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia
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Abstract
Background: Leishmaniasis is a vector borne disease caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan leishmania. Objective:To assess the prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis and pattern of lesions in Dega Ochollo primary school students, Ochollo, Southwestern Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 523 school children aging between 6 to 25 years. The students were physically examined for the presence of scar and active lesions. Skin slit and blood were collected from students with suspected active lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Scraps were cultured in Nicolle-Novy-MacNeal(NNN) medium and serological tests were performed using direct agglutination test (DAT). Results: The overall prevalence of tegumentary leishmaniasis including both scar and active lesions among the 523 students which underwent physical examination was 65.8 %. Besides, the study revealed that 64.8% of the participants had current and/or past lesion of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The prevalence of Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and recidivan was 0.2% and 0.8%, respectively. Three hundred and thirteen (59.8%) students were with scar and 21(4.01%) were with active lesions whereas 8(1.5%) of the cases had both scar and active lesions. Majority (49.71%) of the participants belonging to the age group 11-15 years old were the most affected group (p-value<0.05). The average number of scars and lesions per patient was calculated to be 1.5 and 1.7, respectively. Majority (64.17%) of the cases had single scars while 22.74%, 7.48%, and 5.61% of them had double, triple, and four and above, respectively. The scars were more localized above the neck (82.16%) where the highest (54.56%) proportion of the scars was distributed on check. Of the 29 participants who had active lesions, 4(13.8%) of them were found to be culture positive and one patient was also positive for DAT out of these culture positive patients. One smear positive sample was also found among the samples which were positive for NNN medium. Conclusions: cutaneous leishmaniasis is prevalent in the area causing disfigurement and resulting social stigmatization. This calls for the implementation of prevention and control measures including treatment of infected individuals.
Keywords
Cutaneous Leishmaniaisis, Scar, Active Lesion, Ochollo
To cite this article
Gessessew Bugssa, Asrat Hailu, Balem Demtsu, The Current Status of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis and the Pattern of Lesions in Ochollo Primary School Students, Ochollo, Southwestern Ethiopia, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. Vol. 3, No. 6, 2014, pp. 111-116. doi: 10.11648/j.sjcm.20140306.13
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