Clinical Correlations Between Cesium, Cobalt, Manganese, Rubidium and Rhenium with the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2015, Pages: 99-108
Received: Aug. 11, 2015;
Accepted: Aug. 19, 2015;
Published: Sep. 6, 2015
Views 2795 Downloads 57
Shatha Rouf Moustafa, Clinical Analysis Department, College of Pharmacy, Hawler Medical University, Havalan City, Erbil, Iraq
Background and Objectives: Rheumatoid arthritis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases. Studies indicated that increased oxidative stress or defective antioxidant status with inflammation contribute to the pathogenesis of disease. This study was emphasized that levels of some trace elements altered due to oxidative stress and inflammatory process which are associated with the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This study was aimed to assess the serum levels of cesium, cobalt, manganese, rubidium and rhenium in patients group as compared with the control group and investigate the effect of other confounding factors like rheumatoid factor, age, gender and finally estimate the correlation between studied parameters. It was hypothesized that there were an alteration in levels of parameters due to oxidative stress and inflammatory process which are associated with the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Method: This case control study conducted on 56 Iraqi patients of both genders 30 men and 26 women with the average age (40-57) years and 56 of age –gender matched apparently healthy adults were also enrolled in this study as a control group. The patients were free from any diseases except rheumatoid arthritis and this was confirmed by clinical examination and biochemical and hematological tests. Levels of parameters were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Results: There were no significant differences between RF positive and negative groups regarding the studied parameters. There were a significant reduction in cesium and rubidium and a significant elevations in cobalt, manganese and rhenium in patients as compared with the control group. There were no significant differences between rheumatoid factor positive and negative groups regarding focused parameters in men and women groups, except for age factor in women group, there were no significant differences between different age categories in rheumatoid factor positive and negative regarding focused parameters. In addition, there was no significant correlation among studied parameters. Conclusion: Levels of parameters were significantly altered in patients group. These alterations proved the possible association with pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Therefore, the estimation of these parameters could be a useful complementary non-invasive diagnostic tool to determine trace elements status for treatment and diagnosis of disease. These variations are probably responsive to oxidative stress concomitant with inflammation induced by cytokines and resulted from defensive mechanism of patients. Inflammatory mediators affect on trace elements homeostasis in rheumatoid arthritis.
Shatha Rouf Moustafa,
Clinical Correlations Between Cesium, Cobalt, Manganese, Rubidium and Rhenium with the Pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine.
Vol. 4, No. 5,
2015, pp. 99-108.
Symmons DP (2002). Epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis: determinants of onset, persistence and outcome. Baillieres Best Pract Res ClinRheumatol, 16: 707-722.
Ostrakhovitch EA, Afanas’ev IB. (2001). Oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis leukocytes: suppression by rutin and other antioxidants and chelators. Biochem. Pharmacol, 62: 743-746.
Hitchon CA, Gabalawy HS EL (2004).Oxidation in rheumatoid arthritis Arthritis. Res. Ther., 6: 265-278.
Pasha Q, Malik SA, Shaheen N, Shah MH.(2010). Investigation of trace metals in the blood plasma and scalp hair of gastrointestinal cancer patients in comparison with controls. Clin Chim Acta, 411: 531-539.
Brig MN, Chatterje A and Shinde R, "text book medical biochemistry", 6th ed. Published by jitendarprij 2005, 178-557.
Lovell DJ, Glass D, Ranz J, Kramer S, Huang B, Sierra RI, Henderson CJ, Passo M, Graham B, Bowyer S, Higgins G, Rennebohm R, Schikler KN, Giannini E.(2006). A randomized controlled trial of calcium supplementation to increase bone mineral density in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthrit Rheum, 54: 2235-2242.
Arinola OG, Nwozo SO, Ajiboye JA, Oniye AH (2008c). Evaluation of trace elements and total antioxidant status in Nigerian cassava processors Pak. J. Nutr., 7(6): 770-772.
Carl AB and Edward RA “Tietz Fundamentals of Clinical Chemistry”, 6th Ed., Saunders an imprint of Elsevier 2008, 496-507.
Santamaria AB. (2003). “0Manganese Exposure, Essentiality and toxicity” Indian J. Medzres, 128: 484-500.
Gordon RF (1977).Poultry Diseases. The English Language Book Society and Bailliere Tindall, London
Chandra RK (1990). Micronutrients and immune functions: Anoverview. Annal New York Acad. Sci.587:9-16.
De Carvalho PR, Gon Çalves Pita MC, Loureiro JE, Tanaka HR and Ribeiro JS. (2010). “Manganese Deficiency in Bovines: connection between Manganese metalloenzyme Dependent in Gestation and Congenital Defects in New born Calves”, Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9(5): 488-503.
Yen, CK; Yano, Y; Budinger, TF; Friedland, RP; Derenzo, SE; Huesman, RH; O'Brien, HA.(1982). Brain tumor evaluation using Rb-82 and positron emission tomography. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 23 (6): 532–537.
Canavese, Caterina, Decostanzi, Ester, Branciforte, Lino, Caropreso, Antonio; Nonnato, Antonello; Sabbioni, Enrico (2001). Depression in dialysis patients: Rubidium supplementation before other drugs and encouragement. Kidney International. 60(3): 1201–1201.
William Niedermeier, James H. Griggs.(1971). Trace metal composition of synovial fluid and blood serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Journal of Chronic Diseases, 23(8): 527–536.
Zoli A, Altomaonte L, Carcchio R, Galossi A., Ruffini M.P. (1998). Serum Zinc, Copperin active rheumatoid arthritis: Correlation with interlukin 1β and tumor necrosis factor-α. Clin Rheumatol, 17(5):378-382.
Mujtba GM Hashmi and Munir H Shah (2012). Comparative Assessment of Essential and Toxic Metals in the Blood of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients and Healthy Subjects. Biol Trace Elem Res, 146(1):13-22. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9220-9. Epub 2011 Oct 1
Huda M. Ali and Mohammed A. Al-Zubaidi (2012). Evaluation of Trace Elements in Iraqi Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis by using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Iraqi J Pharm Sci, 21(2):77-84.
Satish KT and Reshu M. (2009).Assessment of mineral status (Zn, Cu, Mg and Mn) in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients in Chandigarh, India. Rheumatology Report, 1(5): 16-20.
Krishna Mohan Surapneni and V S Chandrasada Gopan,(2008). Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Status in Patients with Rhumatoid Anthritis. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 23(1): 41-44.
Prakash B. Desai S. Manjunath Sumangalakadi K. Chetana J. Vanishree, (2010). Oxidative stress and enzymatic antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 14 : 959-967.
Ala S, shokrzadeh M, Purshoja AM and Saravi S. (2009).Zinc and Copper plasma concentrations in Rheumatoid Arthritis patients from a selected population in Iran. Pakistan Journal of biological sciences, 12 (14): 1041-1044.