The Analysis of Electrolyte Levels on Hypertensive Patients in Noongan Regional General Hospital, North Sulawesi, Indonesia
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 8, Issue 5, September 2019, Pages: 54-60
Received: Sep. 19, 2019; Accepted: Sep. 30, 2019; Published: Oct. 15, 2019
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Diana Shintawati Purwanto, Department of Biochemistry, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Yanti Meilen Mewo, Department of Biochemistry, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Edmond Leonard Jim, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Richardo Jordan Laloan, Clinical Clerkship Program, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Joice Nancy Ansje Engka, Department of Physiology, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
Billy Johnson Kepel, Department of Chemistry, Sam Ratulangi University, Manado, Indonesia
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Hypertension is one of the major risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, in addition to hypercholesterolemia and diabetes mellitus. Approximately 95% cases of hypertension in Indonesia is essential hypertension that remains unknown for the etiology and tends to be multifactorial causes. Electrolyte imbalance is thought as one of the prominent underlying mechanisms of hypertension. Electrolyte imbalance can cause serious and life-threatening cardiovascular problems. This study aimed to find out the association between electrolytes levels (serum sodium, potassium, chloride, and total calcium) and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. This was a cross-sectional study that conducted on June-August 2019 at Noongan Regional General Hospital, Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Demographic data such as age, sex, symptoms, salt diet, and consumption of antihypertensive drugs were collected, and then physical examinations including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and body mass index (BMI) were performed. One Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Spearman Rank tests were used for bivariate analysis. There is significant dirrect correlation between serum sodium levels and systolic blood pressure, and an inverse relationship with diastolic blood pressure. As for potassium, there is an inverse relationship between serum potassium levels with systolic and diastolic blood pressures, but not significant. There is a direct correlation between serum chloride levels and systolic blood pressure, and an inverse relationship with diastolic pressure, but not significant. For total calcium, there is a direct correlation between serum total calcium levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressures, but not significant. In this study, we found out only sodium has a significant correlation with blood pressure, while other electrolytes have a correlation but are not significant.
Electrolyte, Hypertension, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Total Calcium
To cite this article
Diana Shintawati Purwanto, Yanti Meilen Mewo, Edmond Leonard Jim, Richardo Jordan Laloan, Joice Nancy Ansje Engka, Billy Johnson Kepel, The Analysis of Electrolyte Levels on Hypertensive Patients in Noongan Regional General Hospital, North Sulawesi, Indonesia, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2019, pp. 54-60. doi: 10.11648/j.sjcm.20190805.12
Copyright © 2019 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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