Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: A Comprehensive Understanding of Etiology, Pathogenesis and an Oral Physician’s Role in Comprehensive Care
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 5, Issue 4-1, July 2016, Pages: 14-19
Received: Jan. 2, 2016; Accepted: Jan. 7, 2016; Published: Apr. 16, 2016
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Authors
Anjana Ramanathan, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India
Deepak T. A., Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India
Sowmya Krishna, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India
Sindhu Ravindra, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India
Himanshu Lakhani, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Vokkaligara Sangha Dental College and Hospital, Bangalore, India
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Abstract
Cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/CP) is one of the most common structural birth defects, with treatment in multiple surgeries, speech therapy, and orthodontic treatments over first 18 years of life. Of special interest is etiology, incidence, risk factors and prevention. Better understanding of the embryology and genetics of orofacial clefting is crucial for development of a biologically relevant orofacial cleft classification system. The recent identification of specific genes involved in syndromic and non-syndromic orofacial clefting shows a correlation between both conditions with an overlapping genetic basis. However, it has limited application with screening of specific candidates, association studies and genome-wide scans in revealing the molecular basis of human clefting. With a heavy bearing of this condition on the patient and the family alike, providing care for these patients and families can be challenging. Surgically repaired clefts have residual deformity due to scarring and abnormal facial development affecting the social integration of the patient. It is of paramount importance, as the first contact professional, the oral physician must be patient, understanding and empathetic and must record a complete prenatal and natal history; urge the parents to seek immediate care and stress the importance of genetic counselling and prenatal diagnosis in the event of a future pregnancy.
Keywords
Cleft Lip and Palate, Etiology of Cleft, Oral Physician and Cleft, Prenatal Diagnosis of Cleft, Genetic Counselling for Cleft Deformities
To cite this article
Anjana Ramanathan, Deepak T. A., Sowmya Krishna, Sindhu Ravindra, Himanshu Lakhani, Cleft Lip and Cleft Palate: A Comprehensive Understanding of Etiology, Pathogenesis and an Oral Physician’s Role in Comprehensive Care, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. Special Issue:Clinical Conspectus on Cleft Deformities. Vol. 5, No. 4-1, 2016, pp. 14-19. doi: 10.11648/j.sjcm.s.2016050401.13
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Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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