Review on Epidemiology of Camel and Human Brucellosis in East Africa, Igad Member Countries
Science Journal of Clinical Medicine
Volume 6, Issue 6, November 2017, Pages: 109-115
Received: Apr. 24, 2017; Accepted: Jun. 5, 2017; Published: Nov. 8, 2017
Views 2290      Downloads 199
Wubishet Zewdie Wakene, Oromia Pastoral Area Development Commission, Yabello Regional Veterinary Laboratory, Yabello, Ethiopia
Gezahegn Mamo, Addis Ababa University College of Veterinary Medicine and Agriculture, Bishoftu, Ethiopia
Article Tools
Follow on us
Camel production is expanding in pastoral areas of the Eat African region {IGAD member countries} as a result of recurrent drought and its less susceptibility to drought relative to other livestock. It is an important domestic animal and the source of milk during dry season. Camel brucellosis is prevalent in the region. From review high prevalence of human brucellosis is observed with prevalence ranging between 1 to 46.5%, 2.15 to 60%, 5.8 to 17% and 2.15 to 7.5% by ELISA, RBPT, SAT and CFT respectively; whereas 3.1 to 40.5%, 2 to 39.9% and 1.6 to 7.6% by ELISA, RBPT and CFT in camels respectively. It is transmissible from animal to humans, causing acute febrile illness, undulant fever (inter¬mittent or remittent fever) which may persist for weeks or months accompanied by malaise, anorexia and prostration. Brucella species can enter mammalian hosts through skin abrasions or cuts, the conjunctiva, the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract and through reproductive tracts. It has economic importance and public health hazard particularly to pastoralist community because of a widespread traditional habit of consumption of raw animal products and close contact with livestock including camels. Since brucellosis has no effective treatment both in human and livestock; vaccination, hygiene and awareness creation are the best control and prevention strategies in the region. Therefore, the objective of the seminar paper was to review-the epidemiology of brucellosis in camel and human in East Africa with emphasis on Ethiopia.
Brucellosis, Camel, East Africa, Epidemiology, Human
To cite this article
Wubishet Zewdie Wakene, Gezahegn Mamo, Review on Epidemiology of Camel and Human Brucellosis in East Africa, Igad Member Countries, Science Journal of Clinical Medicine. Vol. 6, No. 6, 2017, pp. 109-115. doi: 10.11648/j.sjcm.20170606.13
Copyright © 2017 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Ugo, P. C., Simplice, N. and Sunae, K. (2011): Livestock and Livelihoods in the IGAD Region: A Policy and Institutional Analysis. IGAD LPI Working Paper No. 01 - 11.
Vivien, K. (2004): Review of the livestock sector in the horn of Africa (IGAD countries); Livestock information, Sector analysis and policy branch (AGAL) and FAO.
Ayalew, W., J. M. King, E. Bruns and B. Richkowsky (2003) Economic evaluation of smallholder subsistence livestock production: lessons from an Ethiopian goat development program. Ecol. Econ., 45: 473-485.
Zezza A., B. Davis., C. Azzarri. K. Covarrubias, L. Tasciotti and G. Anriquez (2008) The Impact of Rising Food Prices on the Poor. ESA Working Paper 08-07 Month, year FAO, Rome. Pp.
Biffa, D. and Chaka, H. (2002): Camel and the changing system of Borena pastoral production. In: Proceeding of the Annual Conference of the Ethiopian Veterinary Association (EVA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia date 25 June 2002.
Farah, Z. and Fisher, A. (2004): Milk and Meat from the Camel. Handbook on Products and Processing. 3, pp 67-81.
Olival, K. J. and Daszak, P. (2005): The ecology of emerging neurotrophic viruses. J Neurovirol 11, pp 441–446.
Habtamu, T. T., Richard, B., Dana, H. and Kassaw, A. T. (2015): Camel Brucellosis: Its Public Health andEconomic Impact in Pastoralists, Mehoni District, Southeastern Tigray, Ethiopia. J Micro Res., 5: 149-156.
Wernery, U. (2014): Camel Brucellosis: A Review. Revue Scientifique et Technique. International Office of Epizootics., 33: 839-85.
Ghanem, M. Y., El-Khodery, S. A., Saad, A. A., Abdelkader, A., H., Heybeand and Musse, Y. A. (2009): Seroprevalence of camel brucellosis (Camelus dromedarius) in Somaliland. Trop Anim. Heal and prod., Vol. 41: pp 1779-1786.
Bekele, M., Demelash, B., Fekadu, N., Tesfaye, R., Kassahun, A. and Eystein, S. (2011): Cattle brucellosis in traditional livestock husbandry practice in Southern and Eastern Ethiopia, and its zoonotic implication. Acta Vet. Scan., 53: 24.
McDermot, J., Grace, D. and Zinsstag, J. (2013): Economics of brucellosis impact and control in low-income countries. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., Vol. 32: pp249-261.
International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Institute of Zoology & Hanoi School of Public Health (2012): Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots. Zoonoses Project 4. Report to the Department for International Development, UK. ILRI, Nairobi. Available at: www.dfid. (accessed on 5 July 2012).
Perry, B. and Grace, D. (2009): The impacts of livestock diseases and their control on growth and development processes that are pro-poor. Philos. Trans. roy. Soc. Lond., B, biol. Sci., 364: 2643–2655.
Pappas, G., Papadimitriou, P., Akritidis, N., Christou, L. and Tsianos, V. (2006): The new global map of human brucellosis. Lancet Infect., 6: 91-99.
Xinghong, Y., Jerod, A. S., Ling, C., Beata, C., Theresa, T. and David, W. P. (2013): Progress in Brucella vaccine development. Front Biol (Beijing)., 8: 60–77.
Von Hieber, D. (2010): Investigation of occurrence and persistence of brucellosis in female camel dams (Camelus dromedarius) and their calves. Thesis, Universität Ulm, Germany.
Abou-Eisha, A. M. (2000): Brucellosis in camels and its relation to public health. Aus. Vet. Med. J., 44: 54-64.
Hamdy, M. E. and Amin, A. S. (2002): Detection of Brucella in the milk of infected cattle, sheep, goats and camels by PCR. Vet. J., 16: 299-305.
Musa, M. T., Eisa, M. Z., El-Sanousi, E. M., Abdel-Wahab, M. B. and Perrett, L. (2008): Brucellosis in camels (Camelusdromedarius) in Darfur, Western Sudan. J. Comp. Pathol. 138: 151-155.
Omer, M. K., Skjerve, E., Holstad, G., Woldehiwet, Z. and Mac¬millan, A. P. (2000): Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. in cattle, sheep, goats, horses and camels in the State of Eritrea; influence of husbandry systems. Epi¬demiology and Infection., 125: 447–453.
Teshome, H., Molla, B. and Tibbo, M. (2003): A seroprevalence study of camel brucellosis in three camel-rearing re¬gions of Ethiopia. Trop Anim Hlth and Prod., 35: pp 381–390.
Schelling, E., Diguimbaye, C., Daoud, S., Nicolet, J. and Zins¬stag, J. (2004): Seroprevalences of zoonotic diseases in nomads and their livestock in Chari-Baguirmi, Chad. Medicine Tropics., 64: 474–477.
Al-Majali, A. M., Al-Qudah, K. M., Al-Tarazi, Y. H. and Al-Rawashdeh, O. F. (2008): Risk factors associated with camel brucellosis in Jordan. Trop Anim H and Prod, 40: 193–200.
Sisay, W. Z. and Mekonnen, H. W. (2012): Seroprevalence of Brucella Infection in Camel and Its Public Health Significance in Selected Districts of Afar Region, Ethiopia. J Environ Occup Sci., 1: 91-98.
Wanjohi, M., Gitao, C. G. and Bebora, L. (2012): "The Prevalence of Brucella spp. in camel milk marketed from North Eastern Province, Kenya." Res. Opin Anim Vet. Scie., 2: 425-434.
Corbel, M. J. (2006): Brucellosis in humans and animals. Geneva: World Health Organization in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Organization for Animal Health. pp 1-68.
Wesinew, A. B., Tesfaye, S. T. and Simenew, K. M. (2013): Camelus dromedarius brucellosis and its public health associated risks in the Afar National Regional State in northeastern Ethiopia. Acta Vet. Scand., 55: 89.
Godfroid, J., Cloeckaert, A., Liautard, J. P., Kohler, S. and Fretin, D. (2005). From the discovery of the Malta fever’s agent to discovery of a marine mammals reservoir, brucellosis has continuously been a re-emerging zoonosis. Vet res., 36: 313-326.
Ducrotoy, M., Bertu, W. j., Matope, G., Cadmus, S., Conde Álvarez, R., Gusi, A. M., Welburn, S., Ocholi, R., Blasco, J. M. and Moriyó, I. (2015): Brucellosis in Sub-Saharan Africa: Current challenges for management, diagnosis and control. Acta Trop., Vol. 34 (1).
Animut, A., Mekonnen, Y., Shimelis, D. and Ephraim, E. (2009). Febrile illnesses of different etiology among outpatients in four health centers in north western Ethiopia. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 62: 107–110.
WHO and APHA (2005): Brucellosis in humans and animals: WHO guidance Geneva, Heymann DL (ed.). Control of communicable diseases manual: an official report of the American Public Health Association. 18th ed.
Sprague, L. D., Al-Dahouk, S. and Neubauer, H. (2012): A Review on Camel Brucellosis: A Zoonosis Sustained by Ig¬norance and Indifference. Path Gl Hlth., 106: pp144-149.
Brisibe., Nawathe, D. R., and Bet, C. J. (2011): Sheep and goat brucellosis in Borno and Yobe States of arid northeastern Nigeria. Small Rumin. Res., 1996, 20: pp 83–88.
Karadzinska-Bislimovska, J., Minov, J., Mijakoski, D., Stoleski, S. and Todorov, S. (2010). Brucellosis as an occupational disease in the Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian J Med Sci., 3: 251–256.
Greenfield, R. A., Drevets, D. A., Machado, L. J., Voskuhl, G. W., Cornea, P. and Bronze, M. S. (2012): Bacterial pathogens as biological weapons and agents of bioterrorism. Am J Med Sci., 323: 299–315.
Eric, M. O., Peninah, M., Sylvia, O., Eric, O., Fredrick, A., Peter, M., Murithi, M., Zipporah, N., Salome, K., Marybeth, M., Samuel, M. T., Austine, B., Stella, G., Carol, R., Kariuki, N., and Marta, G. (2015): Strong Association between Human and Animal Brucella Seropositivity in a Linked Study in Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg., 93: 224–231.
Benkirane, A., El Idrissi, A. H., Doumbia, A. and de Balogh, K. (2014): Innocuity and immune response to Brucella melitensis Rev. 1 vaccine in camels (Camelus dromedarius).Open Vet J., 4: 96-102.
Radwan, A. I., Bekairi, S. I., Mukayel, A. A., Albokmy, A. M., Prasad, P. V., Azar, F. N. and Coloyan, E. R. (1995). Control of Brucella melitensis infection in large camel herd in Saudi Arabia using antibiotherapy and vaccination with Rev. 1 vaccine. Rev. Sci. Tech., 14: 719–732.
Maves, R. C., Castillo, R., Guillen, A., Espinosa, B., Meza, R. and Espinoza, N. (2011): Antimicrobial susceptibility of Brucella melitensis isolates in Peru. Antimicrob Agents Chemother., 55: pp1279-1281.
Franco, M. P., Mulder, M., Gilman, R. H. and Smiths, H. L. (2007): Human brucellosis. Lancet Infect Dis., Vol7: pp775–786.
Angesom, H., Mahendra, P., Tesfu, K. and Fikre, Z. (2013): Sero-epidemiology of camel brucellosis in the Afar region of Northeast Ethiopia. J. Vet. Med. Anim. Health., 5: 269-275.
Omer, M. M., Musa, M. T., Bakhiet, M. R. and Perrett, L. (2010). Brucellosis in camels, cattle and humans: associations and evaluation of serological tests used for diagnosis of the disease in certain nomadic localities in Sudan. Rev. sci. tech. Off. int. Epiz., 23, pp 663-669.
Maichomo, M. W., McDermott, J. J., Arimi, S. M., Gathura, P. B., Mugambi, T. J. and Muriuki, S. M. ( 2000): Study of brucellosis in a pastoral community and evaluation of the usefulness of clinical signs and symptoms in differentiating it from other flu-like diseases. Afr J Health Sci 7: 114–119.
Musa, M. T. and Shigidi, M. T. (2001): Brucellosis in Camels in Intensive Animal Breeding Areas of Sudan. Implications in Abortion and Early-Life Infections. Revue. Ele. Med. Vet. pays trop., 54: 11-15.
Omer, M. K., Assefaw, T., Skjerve, E., Tekleghiorghis, T. and Woldehiwet, Z. (2002). Prevalence of antibodies to Brucella spp. and risk factors related to high-risk occupional groups in Eritrea. Epi Infect., 129: 85-91.
Ragassa, G., Mekonnen, D., Yamuah, L., Tilahun, H., Guta, T., Gebreyohannes, A., Aseffa, A., Abdoel, T. H. and Smits, H. L. (2009). Human brucellosis in Traditional pastoral communities in Ethiopia. Int. J. Trop. Med. 4: 59-64.
Tolosa, T., Ragassa, F., Belihy, K. and Tizazu, G. (2007). Brucellosis among patients with fever of unknown origin in Jimma University Hospital South Western Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Sci., 17: 59-63.
Kassahun, J., Yimer, E., Geyid, A., Abebe, P., Newayeselassie, B., Zewdie, B., Beyene, M. and Bekele, A. (2006): Sero-prevalence of brucellosis in occupationally exposed people in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Med. J., 44: 245–252.
Gebawo, T., Nuraddis, I. and Tadelle, T. (2014): Sero-Prevalence of Bovine and Human Brucellosis in Adami Tulu, Central Ethiopia. Wor Ap Scie. J., 31: 776-780.
Setella, G. K. (2012): Prevalence and factors associated with brucellosis among febrile patient attending Ijara District Hospital, Kenya. Msc Thesis, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Kenya.
Nabukenya, I., Kaddu-Mulindwa, D. and Nasinyama, G. W. (2013): Survey of Brucella infection and malaria among abattoir workers in Kampala and Mbarara Districts, Uganda. BMC Public Health., 13: 901, 2458-13-901.
Gabriel, T., Enock, M., John, D. K., David, O. O. and Samuel, M. (2015). Human brucellosis: sero-prevalence and associated risk factors in agro-pastoral communities of Kiboga District, Central Uganda, BMC Public Health., 15: 900.
George, N., Edward, S., John, O., Patrice, G. and Alban, B. (2014): Brucella sero prevalence and modifiable risk factors among predisposed cattle keepers and consumers of un pasteurized milk in Mbarara and Kampala districts, Uganda. Afr Hel Sci., Vol. 14.
Nada, A. G., Adil, A. I., Adel, H. E., Elduma, S. S. and Mohamed, E. H. (2014): Seroprevalence of Brucellosis among people in contact with livestock in suburban Khartoum, Sudan. Annals Trop Med. and Pub. Hea., Vol. 6: pp 649-652.
OIE, 2005: Brucellosis, Importance, The Center for Food Security and Public Health (CFSPH), IWOA State University. Institute for International Cooperation in Animal Biologics.
FAO (2010): B. melitensis in Eurasia and the Middle East. FAO Animal Production and Health Proceeding.
Science Publishing Group
1 Rockefeller Plaza,
10th and 11th Floors,
New York, NY 10020
Tel: (001)347-983-5186