Sediment Yield and Soil Erosion Assessment by Using an Empirical Model of MPSIAC for Afjeh & Lavarak Sub-Watersheds, Iran
Volume 2, Issue 1, February 2013, Pages: 14-22
Received: Jan. 30, 2013;
Published: Feb. 20, 2013
Views 3495 Downloads 196
Zahra Najm, MS.c, Dept. Geology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
Nastaran Keyhani, MS.c, Dept. Geology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
Khalil Rezaei, Assistant Professor, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran
Ali Naeimi Nezamabad, Assistant Professor, Islamic Azad University, Saveh Branch, Saveh, Iran
Seyed Hamid Vaziri, Professor, Dept. Geology, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran
Watershed degradation due to soil erosion and sedimentation is one of the major environmental problems in Iran. With respect to the relatively suitable compatibility of MPSIAC model to the arid and semiarid conditions of Iran and lack of hydrometric station in region, we employed the "modified PSIAC model" to estimating of sediment yield and providing sediment yield map in these sub-watersheds. The MPSIAC method incorporates nine environmental factors that contribute to sediment yield of the watershed, this factors are: surface geology, soil, climate, runoff, topography, ground cover, land use, channel and upland erosion. Open-source Geographic Information System (GIS) was used to facilitate the spatial interpolation of the nine model factors and interpretation of predicted sediment yield for the entire watersheds. At first, to enter the available raw data into the GIS framework we digitized the nine factors of maps. In the second stage, digitized maps were encoded with respect to the values of each factor and then these factors of maps were summed together, and finally sedimentation score map was provided. We applied (QS) equation on the sedimentation score map and finally related map was obtained. Various formations basically contain Shaly, Sandstone, Conglomerate and tuff lithology, covered this region more than igneous rocks. The results show that the most values of erosion are in Shaly, Marly, weathered Tuff and alluvial diposites parts of sub-watersheds correlated with sensitive formations such as Karaj and Quaternary sediments. Based on sediment yield map of MPSIAC model, more than 75% of the total sub-watersheds area was classified at class IV of erosion category with high sedimentation. Sub-basin’s erosion were calculated as 769.3 and 583.21 m2/km3 per year for each Afjeh and Lavarak sub-basins by MPSIAC model, respectively. Linear regression analysis between MPSIAC model results and two of most influencing factors on erosion, the geology and soil erodibility indicated that there was a significant correlation. The results of this paper suggested that the model is suitable for predicting yearly average sediment yield of the Iranian watersheds with similar conditions.
Ali Naeimi Nezamabad,
Seyed Hamid Vaziri,
Sediment Yield and Soil Erosion Assessment by Using an Empirical Model of MPSIAC for Afjeh & Lavarak Sub-Watersheds, Iran, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 2, No. 1,
2013, pp. 14-22.
Jiao, J.Y., Tzanopoulos, J., Xoﬁs, P. and Mitchley, J., 2008. Factors affecting distribution of vegetation types on abandoned cropland in the hilly-gullied Loess Plateau region of China. Pedosphere 18 (1), 24–33.
Wilson, G.V., McGregor, K.C. and Boykin, D., 2008. Residue impacts on runoff and soil erosion for different corn plant populations. Soil & Tillage Research 99, 300–307.
Black, P.E., 1982. Watershed Hydrology. New York: Prentice Hall.
Chess, C. and Gibson, G., 2001. Watersheds are not equal: Exploring the feasibility of watershed management, Journal of the American Water Resources Association 37(4): 775-782.
Larney, F.J., Janzen, H.H., Olson, B.M. and Olson, A.F., 2009. Erosion–productivity–soil amendment relationships for wheat over 16 years. Soil & Tillage Research 103 (2009) p73–83.
Jalalian, A., Ghahsareh, A.M. and Karimzadeh, H.R., 1997. Soil erosion estimation for some watershed in Iran. Isfahan: Isfahan University of Technology.
Ahmadi, H., 1995. Applied Geomorphology. Tehran; Tehran University. (In Persian).
Lal, R., 1999. Erosion impact on soil quality in the topics. In: Lal, R (ed) Soil quality and soil erosion, Soil and Water Conservation Society and CRC Press, Boca Raton, 285-305.
Meamarian, H., Tajbakhsh, S.M. and Esmaeilzadeh, H., 2003. The Sediment yield potential estimation of Kashmar urban watershed using MPSIAC model in the GIS framework, Map India Conference 2003, Poster Session.
Nikkami, D., Elektorowicz, M. and Mehuys, G., 2002. Op-timizing the management of soil erosion, Water Quality Re-source Journal of Canada, 37(3): 577-586.
Blaszczynski, J., 2001. Regional sheet and Rill Soil Erosion Prediction with the RUSLE-GIS Interface, Bureau of Land Management Resource Notes No. 46. http://www.blm.gov/nstc/resourcenotes/respdf/RN46.pdf . Access on 22 October 2004.
Wijeskera, S. and Samarakoon, L., 2002. Extraction of pa-rameters and modeling soil erosion using GIS in a grid en-vironment. Colombo: Sri Lanka Publishing Company.
Zachar, D., 1982. Soil Erosion. Development in Soil Science 10. Amsterderm, Elsevier.
Bartsch, K.P., Van Miegroet, H., Boettinger, J., and Dobro-wolski, J.P., 2002. Using empirical models and GIS to de-termine erosion risk at Camp Williams, Utah, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, 57(1): 29-37.
Noman, A.A. and Tahir, T.M., 2002. Rainfall-Runoff Erosion Model for semi-arid catchments using GIS, Journal of Science and Technology. 7(2): http://www.ust.edu/sj/Rainfall.htm. Accessed on 23 July 2004.
Ghadiri, H., 1990. Soil Conservation. Tehran: University of Ahwaz (In Persian).
Haregeweyn, N., Poesen, J., Nyssen, J., Verstraeten, G., Vente, G.D., Govers, G., Deckers, S. and Moeyersons, S., 2005. Speciﬁc sediment yield in Tigray-Northern Ethiopia: assessment and semi-quantitative modeling. Geomorphology 69, 315–334.
Mahmoodabadi, M. and Refahi, H.G., 2005. Sediment Yield Assessment Using MPSIAC Model in GIS Framework. Te-hran University, Tehran.
Meamarian, H. and Esmaeilzadeh, H., 2003. The Sediment yield potential estimation of Kashmar watershed (Iran) using MPSIAC model in the GIS framework. http://www.gisdevelopment.net/application/2003.
Safamanesh, R., Azmin-Sulaiman, W.N. and Ramli, F.M., 2006. Erosion risk assessment using an empirical model of paciﬁc south west inter-agency committee method for Zargeh watershed, Iran. Spatial Hydrology l, 105–120.
Tajgarddan, T., Ayoubi, S.H., Shtei, A. and Jouybari, S.H., 2008. Soil erosion and sediment yield assessment using MPSIAC model, remote sensing and geographic information systems (Case study: Ziarrat watershed). Pajou-hesh-va-Sazandegi (Iran) 21 (79), 37–45.
Millward, A.A. and Mersey, J.E., 2001. Conservation strate-gies for effective land management of protected areas using an erosion prediction information system, Journal of Envi-ronmental Management, 91: 329-343.
Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee (PSIAC), 1968. Factor affecting sediment yield and measurement for the reduction of erosion and sedimentation yield. Portland: United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service.
Heshmati, M., Ariﬁn, A., Shamshuddin, J. and Majid, N.M., 2012. Predicting N, P, K and organic carbon depletion in soils using MPSIAC model at the Merek catchment, Iran, Geoderma journal 175–176 (2012) p 64–77.
PSIAC (Pacific Southwest Interagency Committee), Erosion and sediment yield methods. Mimeo. Rep, USDA Soil Con-servation Service, Portland, Oregon.
McHugh, M., Walling, D., Wood, G., Zhang, Y., and Wil-liamson, A., 2002. Prediction of sediment delivery to water courses from land. National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University.
Green, D.R. and Rix, D., 1995. The Association for Geo-graphic Information Sourcebook for GIS. London: Associa-tion for Geographic Information.
Shrestha, M.N., 2002. Assessment of hydrological changes due to landuse modifications, Unpublished Ph.D thesis. Indian Institute of Technology, India.
Feiznia, S., 1995. Natural Resources Journal of Tehran Uni-versity,No.47:17-21.
Aker, A., 1971. Soil Surface Factors, Determination of erosion condition class. Bureau of Land Management, Department of Interior, USA, form 7310-12.
Najafinejad, A., 2003. Gully erosion measurement in loess hilly area. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Gorgan University, Iran. (In Persian).
Johnson, C.W. and Gebhardt, K.A., 1982. Predicting sediment yield from Sagebrush Rangelands, U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, SEA, Agricultural Research Service, Agricultural Reviews and Manuals, AEW-Western Series, no.26. pp. 145-156..