Heavy Metal Assessment of Groundwaters in the Vicinities of Dumpsites in Calabar Metropolis, South-Eastern Nigeria
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 261-265
Received: Feb. 6, 2014;
Accepted: Nov. 9, 2015;
Published: Dec. 7, 2015
Views 4254 Downloads 124
Azubuike S. Ekwere, Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Solomon J. Ekwere, Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Assessment of heavy metal contents in groundwater in vicinities of dumpsites within the Calabar metropolis was carried out. The dumpsites included those located at Akai-Effa, Anantigha, Bogobiri, LEMNA road and Marina beach. The choice of dumpsites was guided by magnitude of operation, history and longevity as related to possible metal speciation, leachate fate and disperssivity. Studied heavy metals included; Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and As. Results and interpretation revealed generally the highest concentration of selected metals to be in the vicinities of the Akai-Effa dumpsite (an abandoned and reclaimed automobile repair and scrap metal dumpsite with a long history of operation). This was followed by the Bogobiri dumpsite with a relatively shorter period of operation but a history of frequent incineration of refuse. Hydrochemical modelling indicated the aqueous species of metals to be predominantly free mobile ions, oxides and hydroxides. Other multi-element complexes were also identified at varying degrees of dominance and these were largely hydrated arsenates. Metal speciation in groundwater was adjudged to be controlled by dumpsites longevity, refuse type and associated activities. Current levels and speciation trend create a need for temporal and spatial monitoring for possible hazard prognosis and human health concerns.
Azubuike S. Ekwere,
Solomon J. Ekwere,
Heavy Metal Assessment of Groundwaters in the Vicinities of Dumpsites in Calabar Metropolis, South-Eastern Nigeria, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 4, No. 6,
2015, pp. 261-265.
Adefemi, O. S, Ibigbami, O. A., and Awokunmi, E. E., (2012). Level of heavy metals in some edible plants collected from selected dumpsites in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. Vol.1(5) pp.132-136.
Shagal, M. H., Maina, H. M., Donatus, R. B., and Tadzabia, K., (2012). Bioaccumulation of trace metals concentration in some vegetables grown near refuse and effluents dumpsites along Rumude-Doubeli bye-pass in Yola North, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Global Advanced Research Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. Vol.1(2) pp.018-022.
Abdus-salam, N, (2009). Assessment of heavy metals pollution in dumpsites in Ilorin metropolis. Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management. Vol.2 No.2(pp.92-99).
Short, K. C., and Stauble, A. J., (1967). Outline of geology of Niger Delta. AAPG Bulletin 52, pp.761-779.
Ekwueme, B. N., (2003). The Precambrian geology and evolution of the Southeastern Nigerian basement complex. University of Calabar Press 135p.
Reijers, T. J. A., (1996). Selected Chapters on Geology, Sedimentary Geology and Sequence Stratigraphy and three case studies and field guide, SPDC Publications, Warri, Nigeria, 197p.
WHO, (2001). Guidelines for drinking water quality, 3rd edn. WHO/EO/20.1. WHO, New York, 283 pp.
Woody, P. B., (1993). Potential effects of heavy metals in municipal solid waste composts on plants and the environment. Cornell Waste Management Institute, Rice Hall, Ithaca, NY (607) 255-1187.
Vassilev, S., and Vassilev, C., (1997). Geochemistry of coals, coal ashes and combustion wastes from coal-fired power station. Fuel processing Technology, No. 51.
Ekwere, A. S., (2010). Hydrogeological and Hydrogeochemical Framework of the Oban Massif, south-eastern Nigeria. Ph.D Thesis, Dept. of Geology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
Taylor, J. R., Weaver, T. R., McPhail, D. C., & Murphy, N. C., (1996). Characterization and impact assessment of mine tailings in the King River System and delta, Western Tasmania. Final Rept: Project No. 5 Mt. Lyell Remediation Res. and Demonst. Program.
Apte, S. C., Benko, W. I., & Day, G. M., (1995). Partition and complexation of copper in the Fly River, Papua, New Guinea. J Geochem. Explor. 52:67-79.
Ekwere, A. S., Edet, A. E., and Ukpong, A. J., (2011). Hydrochemistry of the near-shore Marine Bay, Calabar River, south-eastern Nigeria. RMZ-Materials and Geoenvironment Vol. 58, No.4, pp. 421-436.
Baggio, H., and Horn, H., (2012). Natural and anthropogenic contributions to concentration and distribution of heavy metals in surface water and in sediments in the Formoso River, Buritizeiro Municipality – Minas Gerais State, Brasil. Comunicaҫões Geológicas, 99:2 pp. 71-78.