Heavy Metal Assessment of Groundwaters in the Vicinities of Dumpsites in Calabar Metropolis, South-Eastern Nigeria
Earth Sciences
Volume 4, Issue 6, December 2015, Pages: 261-265
Received: Feb. 6, 2014; Accepted: Nov. 9, 2015; Published: Dec. 7, 2015
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Authors
Azubuike S. Ekwere, Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
Solomon J. Ekwere, Department of Geology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
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Abstract
Assessment of heavy metal contents in groundwater in vicinities of dumpsites within the Calabar metropolis was carried out. The dumpsites included those located at Akai-Effa, Anantigha, Bogobiri, LEMNA road and Marina beach. The choice of dumpsites was guided by magnitude of operation, history and longevity as related to possible metal speciation, leachate fate and disperssivity. Studied heavy metals included; Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Co and As. Results and interpretation revealed generally the highest concentration of selected metals to be in the vicinities of the Akai-Effa dumpsite (an abandoned and reclaimed automobile repair and scrap metal dumpsite with a long history of operation). This was followed by the Bogobiri dumpsite with a relatively shorter period of operation but a history of frequent incineration of refuse. Hydrochemical modelling indicated the aqueous species of metals to be predominantly free mobile ions, oxides and hydroxides. Other multi-element complexes were also identified at varying degrees of dominance and these were largely hydrated arsenates. Metal speciation in groundwater was adjudged to be controlled by dumpsites longevity, refuse type and associated activities. Current levels and speciation trend create a need for temporal and spatial monitoring for possible hazard prognosis and human health concerns.
Keywords
Calabar, Dumpsite, Heavy Metal, Nigeria, Speciation
To cite this article
Azubuike S. Ekwere, Solomon J. Ekwere, Heavy Metal Assessment of Groundwaters in the Vicinities of Dumpsites in Calabar Metropolis, South-Eastern Nigeria, Earth Sciences. Vol. 4, No. 6, 2015, pp. 261-265. doi: 10.11648/j.earth.20150406.17
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