Spatial –Temporal Analysis of Drought in Iran Using SPI During a Long - Term Period
Volume 6, Issue 2, April 2017, Pages: 15-29
Received: Aug. 31, 2015;
Accepted: Sep. 21, 2015;
Published: Apr. 11, 2017
Views 3090 Downloads 151
Sohaila Javanmard, Atmospheric Science and Meteorological Research Center (ASMERC), Tehran, I. R. of Iran
Mandana Emamhadi, Atmospheric Science and Meteorological Research Center (ASMERC), Tehran, I. R. of Iran
Javad BodaghJamali, Environmental Engineering Faculty, University of Environment, Karaj, Iran
Ali Didehvarasl, Atmospheric Science and Meteorological Research Center (ASMERC), Tehran, I. R. of Iran
This investigation represents temporal and spatial analysis of drought events over Iran for a 42 - year period (1963 - 2005). At first, the severity of drought occurrences over Iran has been identified using SPI (Standardized Precipitation Index) at various time scales (i.e., 3, 9, and 12 - month) for 50 synoptic stations. Then the spatial distribution of annual and seasonal drought severity using SPI - 12 months and SPI - 3 months respectively have been derived. Seasonal drought has been determined for spring, autumn, and winter using SPI - 3 months for May, Nov and Feb respectively. Maps of annual and seasonal drought showed occurrence of drought in most parts of Iran mostly in following years, 1985, 1990, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. Based on the frequency of each drought severity category at different time scales (SPI - 3, 9, and 12 months), time series of number of stations experienced drought were derived. They showed that mild drought has been occurred continuously in about 85% - 95% of stations from 1998 through 2001 using SPI - 9 months and SPI - 12 months. But SPI - 3 months showed mostly 99% of stations were affected by drought continuously from 1998 through 2002. Finally, spatial distribution of each drought severity categories for different time - scales were derived.
Spatial –Temporal Analysis of Drought in Iran Using SPI During a Long - Term Period, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 6, No. 2,
2017, pp. 15-29.
Abramowitz M, Stegun IA., 1965, Handbook of mathematical formulas, graphs, and mathematical tables. Dover Publications: New York.
Bazrafshan O., 2007, Management and mapping drought hazard using standard precipitation Index (SPI) (case study: Golestan province), 2nd International Conference on Integrated Natural Disaster management, Tehran, Iran.
Bodagh Jamali, J., S. Javanmard, R. Shirmo hammadi, 2002, Monitoring and mapping of drought condition in Khorasan province using standard precipitation index, Geographical Research, No. 67, 4 - 21.
B. Çaldagi, L. Saylani, H. Torosi, S. Sirasi, and F. Bakano gullari, 2004, Drought analysis in Northwest Turkey, 2004. Agro Environ, Udine, Italy, 20 - 24 October 2004.
Hagygat A., 2005, the SPI monitoring in Fars province, Drought report, I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization, Tehran, Iran, (in Persian).
Hedayati Dezfuli A., 2005, Analysis of droughts and its trends in Kohkiloe and Boyer Ahmad, Nivar, The Scientific & Technical Journal of IRIMO, No 58, 59, 73 - 94.
Malekifard F., P. Rezazadeh, 2006, North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and its effects on temperature and precipitation over Northwest of Iran, I. R. of Iran Meteorological Organization, Tehran, Iran.
Mathieu R. and Y. Richard, 2005, Intensity and spatial extent of droughts in southern Africa, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, L15702, doi: 10.1029/2005 GL 022436.
McKee, T. B., N. J. Doesken and J. Kleist, 1993, the relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. 8th Conference of Applied Climatology, 179 - 184.
NOAA Satellite and Information Service, 2008, National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), U. S. A., Climate monitoring, SPI.
Raziei, T., Shokoohi, A., Saghafian, B., and Arasteh, P. D., 2002, Drought monitoring using SPI index in Yazd Province, 8th International Conference on understanding future dry land environment changes from past dynamics, Yazd, Iran.
Samadi - neghab. S., 2005, Drought - forecasting by using downscaling method on GCM outputs, Journal of Geography and Rural Development, No. 8, pp: 193 - 212. Tehran, Iran.
Seung - ki Min, Won - tae Kwon, E - hyung Park and Youngeun Choi. 2003, Spatial and temporal comparisons of droughts over Korea with East Asia. Int. J. of Climatology, 23, 223. DOI: 10.1002/joc. 872, Published online in Wiley Inter Science.
Sevinc S., S. Zekai. 2001, Application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI) to the Marmara region, Turkey, Integrated Water Resources Management (Proceedings of a symposium held at Davis, California, April 2000), IAHS Pub, No. 272, pp. 291–296.
URL 1, Drought assessment and mitigation in Southwest Asia: http//www. iwmi. cgiar. org.
URL 2, National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), 2005, What is Drought: Drought Indices. http: //drought. unl. edu/whatis/indices. htm#swsi
URL 3, National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), 2008, Drought monitoring, SPI.
Vicente - Serrano S. M. and J. I. L´opez - Moreno, 2005, Hydrological response to different time scales of climatological drought, An evaluation of the Standardized Precipitation Index in a mountainous Mediterranean basin, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 9, 523–533, www. copernicus. org/EGU/hess/hess/9/523/SRef - ID: 1607 - 7938/hess/2005 - 9 - 523, European Geosciences Union.
Zanvettor R., A. Ravelo, 2000, using the SPI to monitor the 1999–2000 drought in northeastern Argentina, Drought network News, A Newsletter of the International Drought Information Center and the National Drought Mitigation Center, Vol 12, No. 3.