Volume 7, Issue 5, October 2018, Pages: 202-208
Received: Jul. 18, 2018;
Accepted: Aug. 8, 2018;
Published: Sep. 6, 2018
Views 840 Downloads 71
Ishmail Sheriff, Institute of Environmental Management and Quality Control, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone
Eldred Tunde Taylor, Institute of Environmental Management and Quality Control, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone
Alusine Bai Kamara, Institute of Environmental Management and Quality Control, Njala University, Njala, Sierra Leone
Abdul Sannoh, United Nation Development Program, Global Environment Facility/Small Grant Program, Freetown, Sierra Leone
Access to clean water and sanitation is the centerpiece of Africa water vision 2025 and Goal six (6) of the 2030 UN agenda for Sustainable Development. Considering the current national WASH regulatory structures in Sierra Leone, meeting these targets enshrined in the policy documents would be a critical challenge for the government. The overarching objectives sought by the study were to determine the available composition of physio-chemical parameters and evaluate impact of mine tailings on nearby water bodies within the operational areas of Sierra Rutile Mining Company Limited. Twenty-four (24) water samples obtained from six (6) streams were tested for seventeen (17) physical and chemical parameters. About 30% of the indicators were noted to be above the permissible limit of water quality standard in almost all of the sampling sites. A pattern of decrease concentration downstream for Zn, Pb and Cu was observed but those at the tailing points were noted otherwise. The results revealed that mining activities have to an extent negative impact on the local water sources. Consequently, certain indicators were considered to be of public health concern considering their baseline levels. It would be necessary for the company to examine the mechanism of discharge of tailings and strengthen the environmental surveillance within its concessionary areas to enhance sustainability with the ultimate goal to improve environmental performance.
Eldred Tunde Taylor,
Alusine Bai Kamara,
Impact of Tailings on Surrounding Streams at a Mining Area in Sierra Leone, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 7, No. 5,
2018, pp. 202-208.
World Health Organization (2011) Guidelines for drinking-water quality. 4th ed. ISBN 978 92 4 154815 1.
World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) (2017) Progress on Drinking Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: 2017 Update and SDG Baselines. Geneva. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
Md. Khan, H. R. Seddique, A. A. Rahman, A. Shimizu, Y. (2017) Heavy Metals Contamination Assessment of Water and Soils in and Around Barapukuria Coal Mine Area, Bangladesh. American Journal of Environmental Protection, 6, 80-86.
Sankhla, M. S. Kumari, M. Nandan, M. Kumar, R. Agrawal, P. (2016) Heavy Metals Contamination in Water and their Hazardous Effect on Human Health-A Review. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences, 5, 759-766.
Ning L. Liyuan Y. Jirui D. Xugui P. (2011) Heavy Metal Pollution in Surface Water of Linglong Gold Mining Area, China. 2011 3rd International Conference on Environmental Science and Information Application Technology. Procedia Environmental Sciences, 10, 914–917.
Atibu, E. K. Devarajan, N. Thevenon, F. Mwanamoki, P. M. Tshibanda, J. B. Mpiana, P. T. Prabakar, K. Mubedi, J. I. Wildi, W. Poté, J. (2013) Concentration of metals in surface water and sediment of Luilu and Musonoie Rivers, Kolwezi-Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo. Applied Geochemistry, 39, 26-32.
Book, F. (2014) Risk assessment of mining effluents in surface water downstream the sulphide ore mine Aitik, northern Sweden. Master thesis in Ecotoxicology, Master’s Program, 120 hec. Department of Biology and Environmental Science, University of Gothenburg. P 7.
Ashraf, M. A. Maah, M. J. Yusoff, I. Ghararibreza, M. (2012) Speciation of heavy metals in the surface waters of a former tin mining catchment. Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability, 24, (1).
Madzin, Z. Kusin, F. M. Yusof, F. M. Muhammad, S. N. (2016) Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contamination in Active and Abandoned Iron Ore Mining Sites in Pahang, Malaysia. MATEC Web of Conferences 103, 05010 (2017) DOI: 10.1051/matecconf/20171030 ISCEE 2016.
Smical, I. Muntean, A. Nour, E. (2015) Research on the Surface Water Quality in Mining Influenced Area in North-Western part of Romania. Geographica Pannonica, 19, 20-30.
Campaner, V. P. Luiz-silva, W. Machado, W. (2014) Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil. Annals of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0001-37652014113712.
Modoi, O. C. Roba, C. Török, Z. Ozunu, A. (2014) Environmental risks due to heavy metal pollution of Water resulted from mining wastes in Nw Romania. Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 13, 2325-2336.
Moschini-Carlos, V. Pompêo, M. L. M. Lobo, F. D. L. Meirelles, S. T. (2011) Impact of coal mining on water quality of three artificial lakes in Morozini River Basin (Treviso, Santa Catarina State, Brazil). Acta Limnologica Brasiliensia, 23, 271-281.
Rakotondrabe, F. Ngoupayou, J. R. N. Mfonka, Z. Rasolomanana, E. H. Abolo, A. J. N. Asone, B. L. Ako, A. A. Rakotondrabe, M. H. (2017) Assessment of Surface Water Quality of Betare-Oya Gold Mining Area (East-Cameroon). Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 960- 984.
Wasiu, M. O. Ayodele, O. E. Ayodele, T. I. Oluremi, O. I. Temitope, O. K. Temitope, F. O. (2016) Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold mining areas of South Western Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 10, 150-161.
Hadzi, G. Y. Essumang, D. K. Adjei, J. K. (2015) Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Surface Water from Pristine Environments and Major Mining Areas in Ghana. Journal of Health & Pollution, 5, 86-99.
Mansaray, A. S. Borsuah, J. F. Gogra, A. B. Fofana, B. P. Koroma, B. M. (2017) The Safety of Water Supplied at Njala University, Njala Campus. Natural Resources, 8, 81-93.
Nwamaka, I. K. Akudo, A. D. (2014) Assessment of groundwater quality in wells within the Bombali District, Sierra Leone. Animal Research International, 11, 1905–1916.
Jimmy, D. H. Sundufu, A. J. Malanoski, A. P. Jacobsen, K. H. Ansumana, R. Leski, T. A. Bangura, U. Bockarie, A. S. Tejan, E. Lin, B. Stenger, D. A. (2012) Water Quality associated Public Health Risk in Bo, Sierra Leone. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 241-251.
Massally, R.-E. M. Sheriff, A. B. Kaitibi, D. Abu, A. Barrie, M. Taylor, E. T. (2017) Comprehensive Assessment of Groundwater Quality around a Major Mining Company in Southern Sierra Leone. Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 9, 601-613.
Ashraf, M. A. Maah, M. J. Yusoff, I. B. (2010) Study of Water Quality and Heavy Metals in Soil & Water of Ex-Mining Area Bestari Jaya, Peninsular Malaysia. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 10, 03.
Ochieng, G. M. Seanego, E. S. Nkwonta, O. I. (2010) Impacts of mining on water resources in South Africa: A review. Scientific Research and Essays, 5, 3351-3357.
Huey G. M. Meyer M. L. (2010) Turbidity as an Indicator of Water Quality in Diverse Watersheds of the Upper Pecos River Basin. Water, 2, 273-284.
Mufenda, M. Ellmie R. (2009) Characterization of contamination of stream sediments and surface water at Otjihase mine, Namibia. Communs. Geol. Survey. Namibia, 14, 41-55.
Sanusi K. A. Hassan M. S. Abbas M. A. Kura A. M. (2017) Assessment of heavy metals contamination of soil and water around abandoned Pb-Zn mines in Yelu, Alkaleri Local Government Area of Bauchi State, Nigeria. International Research Journal of Public and Environmental Health, l4, 72-77.
Nnabo, P. N. (2015) Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination Of Water Sources From Enyigba Pb-Zn District, South Eastern Nigeria. International journal of Scientific & Technology Research, 4, 187-197.
Kovács, E. Tamás, J. Frančišković-Bilinski, S. Omanović, D. Bilinski, H. Ivanka Pižeta, I. (2012) Geochemical study of surface water and sediment at the abandoned Pb-Zn mining site at Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 21, 5a. 2012.
Angelovičová L. Fazekašová D. (2014) Contamination of the soil and water environment by heavy metals in the former mining area of Rudňany (Slovakia). Soil & Water Res, 9, 18-24.
Sobhanardakania, S. Yarib, A. R. Taghavic, L. Tayebid, L. (2016) Water Quality Pollution Indices to Assess the Heavy Metal Contamination, Case Study: Groundwater Resources of Asadabad Plain in 2012. Arch Hyg Sci, 5, 221-228.
Kossoff, D. Dubbin, W. E. Alfredsson, M. Edwards, S. J. Macklin, M. G. Hudson-Edwards, K. A. (2014) Mine tailings dams: Characteristics, failure, environmental impacts, and remediation. Applied Geochemistry 51, 229-245.
Hua, Z. Yinghui, J. Tao, Y. Min, W. Guangxun S. Mingjun, D. (2016) Heavy Metal Concentrations and Risk Assessment of Sediments and Surface Water of the Gan River, China. Pol. J. Environ. Stud,. 25, 1529-1540.
Gleekia, A. M. G. D. Sahu, H. B. (2016) Impacts of iron ore mining on water quality–a comparative study of India and Liberia. Conference paper 6th ASIAN MINING CONGRESS 23-26 February 2016, Kolkata, India. The Mining Geological and Metallurgical Institute of India (MGMI).
O’Mullane, D. M. Baez, R. J. Jones, S. Lennon, M. A. P. E. Petersen, P. E. Rugg-Gunn, A. J. H. Whelton, H. Whitford, G. M. (2016) Fluoride and Oral Health. Community Dental Health 33, 69-99.