Surface and Crustal Study Based on Digital Elevation Modeling and 2-D Gravity Forward Modeling in Thandiani to Boi Areas of Hazara Region, Pakistan
Volume 9, Issue 4, August 2020, Pages: 130-142
Received: Jul. 25, 2020;
Accepted: Aug. 10, 2020;
Published: Aug. 19, 2020
Views 51 Downloads 87
Umair Khan, School of Geosciences & Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China
Fawad Khan, Institute of Geology, University of Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Muzaffarabad, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Tahirinandraina Prudence Rabemaharitra, School of Geosciences & Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China
Malik Arsalan, School of Geosciences & Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China
Osama Abdulrahim, School of Geosciences & Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China
Inayat Ur Rahman, School of Geosciences & Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha, China
Gravity data indicates that there is a regular relation between crustal structure, crustal density (composition), and surface ascension. In order to delineate surface and subsurface geological structure features, and to calculate the thickness variation of the crust and sedimentary/metasedimentary wedges, integrated approach of Geographic Information System (GIS) i.e. digital elevation models (DEMs) and two-dimensional forward modeling of gravity data were utilized, which provide the best results for the primary objectives. Tectonically, the study area lies in the Lesser Himalayas as well as to an extent in the sub-Himalaya, more concretely in the western limb of Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis. Topographic data was accumulated in XYZ coordinates utilizing point heights method, and DEMs generation, manipulation, interpretation, and visualization process were directed to surfer-15 and ArcGIS software. Determinately the visualization of surface geological structure in the form of DEMs were proposed. The gravity stations in single contour mode have been quantified by using Scintrex CG-5 gravity meter. The collected gravity data was processed by standardizing corrections, two-dimensional forward modeling along with gravity profile were utilized and bouguer anomaly map and gravity model was computed utilizing bouguer density of 2.4 g/cm3, where the subsurface structures are demarcated by the bouguer anomaly and gravity model. In summary this research has allowed the validation of surface and subsurface geological structure visualization. Digital elevation models provide a defensive prediction of the geological structure of the regional surface. The gravity model demarcated a series of stratigraphic units with density boundaries within the basement. The gravity model also suggests that the thickness of sedimentary/metasedimentary wedge in Thandiani area is 11.48 km and in Boi area, the thickness elongates to about 14.43 km. The total thickness of crust in Thandiani and Boi area is 49.53 km and 52.43 km respectively.
Tahirinandraina Prudence Rabemaharitra,
Inayat Ur Rahman,
Surface and Crustal Study Based on Digital Elevation Modeling and 2-D Gravity Forward Modeling in Thandiani to Boi Areas of Hazara Region, Pakistan, Earth Sciences.
Vol. 9, No. 4,
2020, pp. 130-142.
Braitenberg C, Zadro M, Fang J, Wang Y, Hsu H. The gravity and isostatic Moho undulations in Qinghai–Tibet plateau. Journal of Geodynamics. 2000; 30 (5): 489-505.
FUKAO Y, YAMAMOTO A, NOZAKI K. A method of density determination for gravity correction. Journal of Physics of the Earth. 1981; 29 (2): 163-6.
Burrough PA, McDonnell R, McDonnell RA, Lloyd CD. Principles of geographical information systems: Oxford university press; 2015.
Jenson SK, Domingue JO. Extracting topographic structure from digital elevation data for geographic information system analysis. Photogrammetric engineering and remote sensing. 1988; 54 (11): 1593-600.
Onorati G, Ventura R, Poscolieri M, Chiarini V, Crucilla U. The digital elevation model of Italy for geomorphology and structural geology. Catena. 1992; 19 (2): 147-78.
Webster TL, Murphy JB, Gosse JC, Spooner I. The application of lidar-derived digital elevation model analysis to geological mapping: an example from the Fundy Basin, Nova Scotia, Canada. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing. 2006; 32 (2): 173-93.
Andersen OB, editor The DTU10 Global Gravity field and mean sea surface–improvements in the Arctic. 2nd IGFS meeting; 2010.
Banjeree P, Satyaprakash W. Crustal configuration across the north-western Himalaya as inferred from gravity and GPS aided geoid undulation studies [J]. Journal of the Virtual Explorer. 2003; 12: 93-106.
Caporali A. Gravity anomalies and the flexure of the lithosphere in the Karakoram, Pakistan. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 1995; 100 (B8): 15075-85.
Bai Z, Zhang S, Braitenberg C. Crustal density structure from 3D gravity modeling beneath Himalaya and Lhasa blocks, Tibet. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences. 2013; 78: 301-17.
Khan MR, Bilali SS, Hameed F, Rabnawaz A, Mustafa S, Azad N, et al. Application of gravity and magnetic methods for the crustal study and delineating associated ores in the western limb of Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis, Northwest Himalayas, Pakistan. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2018; 11 (6): 131.
Lyon-Caen H, Molnar P. Gravity anomalies, flexure of the Indian plate, and the structure, support and evolution of the Himalaya and Ganga Basin. Tectonics. 1985; 4 (6): 513-38.
Butt AA. Problems of stratigraphic nomenclature in the Hazara District, NWFP, Pakistan. Geol Bull Punjab Univ. 1972; 9: 65-9.
Calkins J, Offield T, Ali S. Geology and mineral resources of southern Hazara district, West Pakistan and part of western Kashmir. United States Department of State and Government of Pakistan project report. 1969; 43: 92.
Caporali A. The gravity field of the Karakoram Mountain Range and surrounding areas. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 2000; 170 (1): 7-23.
Greco AM. Tectonics and metamorphism in the western Himalayan syntaxis area (Azad Kashmir, NE-Pakistan): ETH Zurich; 1989.
Umar M, Sabir MA, Farooq M, Khan MMSS, Faridullah F, Jadoon UK, et al. Stratigraphic and sedimentological attributes in Hazara Basin Lesser Himalaya, North Pakistan: their role in deciphering minerals potential. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 2015; 8 (3): 1653-67.
Shah SI. Stratigraphy of Pakistan. 1977.
Iqbal S, Nasir S, Hussain A. Geological map of the Nauseri area, District Muzaffarabad, AJK: Geol. Survey of Pakistan Geological Map Series. 2004; 6 (14).
Gee E, Gee D. Overview of the geology and structure of the Salt Range, with observations on related areas of northern Pakistan. Geological Society of America special paper. 1989; 232: 95-112.
Zahid M, Ahmad S, Ali F, Rehman G. Structural geometry of a part of the southeastern Hazara Fold-Thrust Belt, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Hydrocarbon Research. 2009; 19.
DiPietro JA, Pogue KR. Tectonostratigraphic subdivisions of the Himalaya: A view from the west. Tectonics. 2004; 23 (5).
Calkins JA, JA C, TW O, SKM A. Geology of the southern Himalaya in Hazara, Pakistan and adjecent area. 1975.
Spencer JE. Structural analysis of three extensional detachment faults with data from the 2000 Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. GSA Today. 2010; 20 (8): 4-10.
Silva CL, Morales N, Crósta AP, Costa SS, Jiménez-Rueda JR. Analysis of tectonic-controlled fluvial morphology and sedimentary processes of the western Amazon Basin: an approach using satellite images and digital elevation model. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2007; 79 (4): 693-711.
Wang C-y, Lou H, Wei X-c, Wu Q-j. Crustal structure in northern margin of Tianshan mountain and seismotectonics of the 1906 manas earthquake. Acta Seismologica Sinica. 2001; 14 (5): 491-502.
Woollard G. Crustal structure from gravity and seismic measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research. 1959; 64 (10): 1521-44.
Bernabini M, Cifelli F, Di Bucci D, Funiciello F, Orlando L, Parotto M, et al. Studio gravimetrico 3D dell’Italia centrale. Atti del. 1996; 15: 49-52.
Bhattacharyya B, Chan K. Computation of gravity and magnetic anomalies due to inhomogeneous distribution of magnetization and density in a localized region. Geophysics. 1977; 42 (3): 602-9.
Afonso J, Ranalli G, Fernandez M. Density structure and buoyancy of the oceanic lithosphere revisited. Geophysical Research Letters. 2007; 34 (10).
Casten U, Snopek K. Gravity modelling of the Hellenic subduction zone-a regional study. Tectonophysics. 2006; 417 (3-4): 183-200.
Bhattacharyya B. Computer modeling in gravity and magnetic interpretation. Geophysics. 1978; 43 (5): 912-29.
Chen N, Ni N, Kapp P, Chen J, Xiao A, Li H. Structural analysis of the Hero Range in the Qaidam Basin, northwestern China, using integrated UAV, terrestrial LiDAR, Landsat 8, and 3-D seismic data. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing. 2015; 8 (9): 4581-91.
Blythe A, Burbank D, Farley K, Fielding E. Structural and topographic evolution of the central Transverse Ranges, California, from apatite fission-track,(U-Th)/He and digital elevation model analyses. Basin Research. 2000; 12 (2): 97-114.
Adighije C. A gravity interpretation of the Benue Trough Nigeria. Tectonophysics. 1981; 79 (1-2): 109-28.
Talwani M, Worzel JL, Landisman M. Rapid gravity computation for two-dimensional bodies with application to the Mendocina submarine fracture zone. Journal of geophysical research 1959; 64 (1): 49-59.