Ecological Monitoring of Marine Fish Farming Activities by Enteromorpha Intestinalis (Chlorophyta)
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 86-90
Accepted: Apr. 15, 2014;
Published: Apr. 30, 2014
Views 2897 Downloads 162
Kai Aulio, Department of Biology, University of Turku, FI-20014Turun yliopisto, Finland; Present address: Lankakatu 3 D 16, FI-20660 Littoinen, Finland
The biomass production of algae was markedly enhanced near a large fish farming establishment in the northern Baltic Sea, SW coast of Finland. The mean biomass values of the dominant filamentous green alga Enteromorpha intestinalis at sites near the fish farming establishment were 3-fold the values at the control site (160–190 g/ m2 vs. 64 g/m2). The nutrient discharges from the fish farms were reflected in the elemental contents of the algal tissues. The contents of phosphorus (mean values in the farming area vs. at the control site) were 0.30–0.33% (dry weight) vs. 0.25%,and the levels of N were 1.8–2.1 % vs. 1.6%. On the basis of the nutrient contents, nitrogen is the growth-limiting nutrient in these coastal waters. The results are thus in contrast with the commonly accepted view that the reduction of phosphorus discharges is the main objective in water management. In addition, the accumulation of zinc in the tissues of Enteromorpha appeared to be a useful indicator of fish farming activities
Ecological Monitoring of Marine Fish Farming Activities by Enteromorpha Intestinalis (Chlorophyta), International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 86-90.
FAO, Fisheries and Aquaculture Department 2012. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome 2012. http://www.fao.org/docrep/016/i2727e/i2727e00.htm
Teodorowicz, M. 2013. Surface water quality and intensive fish culture. Archives of Polish Fisheries 21(2): 65–111.
HELCOM 2011. The Fifth Baltic Sea Pollution Load Compilation (PLC-5). Baltic Sea Environment Proceedings 128: 1–217.
Asmala, E. &Saikku L. 2010. Closing a loop: Substance flow analysis of nitrogen and phosphorus in the rainbow trout production and domestic consumption system in Finland. Ambio 39(2): 126–135.
Mäkinen, A. & Aulio. K. 1986. Cladophoraglomerata (Chlorophyta) as an indicator of coastal eutrophication. Publications of the Water Research Institute, National Board of Waters and Environment, Finland 68: 160–163.
Aulio, K., Häkkilä, S., Mäkinen, A. & Puhakka, M. 1985.Ecological monitoring of fish farming activities. Abstracts, 9th Baltic Marine Biologists Symposium, Turku 11.–15.6.1985, p. 66.
Bergheim, A., Hustveit, H., Kittelsen, A. & Selmer-Olsen, A.R. 1984. Estimated pollution loadings from Norwegian fish farms. II. Investigations 1980–1981. Aquaculture 36(1-2): 157–168.
Clark, E.R., Harman, J.P. & Foster, J.R.M. 1985. Production of metabolic and waste products by intensively farmed rainbow trout, Salmogaivdnevi Richardson. Journal of Fish Biology 27(4): 381–393.
Junqua, G., Gonzalez, C. &Touraud, E. 2009. Main existing methods for chemical monitoring. pp. 79–90. In: C. Gonzalez, R. Greenwood & P. Quevauviller (Editors), Rapid Chemical and Biological Techniques for Water Monitoring. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester.
Isotalo, I. &Häkkilä, K. 1978. The load and quality in the coastal waters of the Archipelago Sea and the southern Bothnian Sea. Finnish Marine Research 244: 198–214.
Isotalo, I. 1985.The water quality and effects of fish farming activities at the KustaviStröömi area (In Finnish). Progress report series of the National Board of Waters 352: 34–54.
Allen, S.E. (Ed.) 1974. Chemical analysis of ecological materials. pp. 565. Blackwell, Oxford.
Analyse-it Software, Ltd. 2008. Analyse-it for Microsoft Exel (version 2.12).http://www.analyse-it.com).
Allaby M. (Ed.)2012. Oxford Dictionary of Plant Sciences. Third Edition. pp. 565. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Jansson, A.-M. 1974. Community structure, modelling and simulation of the Cladophora ecosystem in the Baltic Sea. Contributions from the Askö Laboratory, University of Stockholm 5: 1–130.
Ruokolahti, K. 1988. Effects of fish farming on growth and chlorophyll a content of Cladophora. Marine Pollution Bulletin 19(4): 166–169.
Kornfeldt, R.-A. 1982. Relation between nitrogen and phosphorus content of macroalgae and the waters of northern Öresund. Botanica Marina 25(4):197–201.
Birch, P.B., Gordon, D.M. &McComb, A.J. 1981. Nitrogen and phosphorus nutrition of Cladophora in the Peel-Harvey estuarine system, Western Australia. Botanica Marina 24(7): 381–387.
Gerloff, G.C. &Krombholz, P.H. 1966. Tissue analysis as a measure of nutrient availability for the growth of angiosperm aquatic plants. Limnology and Oceanography 11(4): 529–537.
McClanahan, T.R., Carreiro-Silva, M. &DiLorenzo, M. 2007. Effect of nitrogen, phosphorus, and their interactions on coral reef algal succession in Glover’s Reef, Belize. Marine Pollution Bulletin 54(12): 1947–1957.
Fong, P., Boyer, K.E. &Zedler, J.B. 1998. Developing an indicator of nutrient enrichment in coastal estuaries and lagoons using tissue nitrogen content of the opportunistic alga, Enteromorpha intestinalis (L. Link). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 231(1): 63-79.
Mendiguchía, C., Moreno, C., Mánuel-Vez, M.P. &García-Vargas, M. 2006. Preliminary investigation on the enrichment of heavy metals in marine sediments originated from intensive aquaculture effluents. Aquaculture 254(1-4): 317–325.
Aulio, K. 1983: Heavy metals in the green alga Cladophoraglomerata as related to shore types in the Archipelago Sea, SW Finland. Marine Pollution Bulletin 14(9): 347–348.
European Commission 2000. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. Official Journal of the European Commission L 327, 22.12.2000.
Ruiz, J.M., Perez, M. & Romero, J. 2001. Effects of fish farm loadings on seagrass (Posidoniaoceanica) distribution, growth and photosynthesis. Marine Pollution Bulletin 42(9): 749760.
Ministry of the Environment, Finland 2013. Kalankasvatuksenympäristönsuojeluohje (In Finnish with the Summary in English: Guidelines for environmental protection in fish farming). Environmental Administration Guidelines 1/2013: 1–75.
Skogen, M.D., Eknes, M., Asplin, L.C. &Sandvik, A.D. 2009. Modeling the environmental effects of fish farming in a Norwegian flord. Aquaculture 298(1-2): 70–75.
Karakassis, I., Papageorgiou, N., Kalantzi, S. & Koutsikopoulos, C. 2013. Adaptation of fish farming production to the environmental characteristics of the receiving marine ecosystems: A proxy to carrying capacity. Aquaculture 408-409: 184–190.