Heavy Metal Concentration Levels in Soil at Lake Geriyo Irrigation Site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 106-111
Received: Apr. 10, 2014; Accepted: Apr. 22, 2014; Published: Apr. 30, 2014
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Authors
Hong, Aliyu Haliru, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Law, Puong Ling, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
Selaman, Onni Suhaiza, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
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Abstract
The study assessed the physicochemical parameters and mean concentration levels of heavy metals in soil at two selected wastewater receiving sites and control site of Lake Geriyo irrigation project in order to determine the extent of heavy metal pollution due to wastewater irrigation using standard methods. The pH values at the River Benue, Shinko and control site soils were slightly acidic to neutral with mean value of 6.85, 5.75 and 7.0 respectively. Mean electrical conductivity values were 1.08µs/cm, 1.54µs/cm and 1.95µs/cm and organic matter levels are 0.75%, 2.11% and 3.5%. The textural classification of the soils revealed that the soils are predominantly sandy in nature with 56.4%, 55.6% and 50.4% sand, 20%, 16.0% and19% are clay, while 24.0%, 28.4% and 30.0% are silt. The mean concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) recorded in River Benue site soil are 86.89mg/kg, 74.38mg/kg,12.76mg/kg, 15.08mg/kg, 9.83mg/kg, 11.0mg/kg, 7.17mg/kg and 18.73mg/kg. Shinko site recorded concentration levels of 292.7mg/kg, 309.2mg/kg, 130.9mg/kg, 253.8mg/kg, 199.2mg/kg, 158.7mg/kg and 74.43mg/kg respectively, while the control site soil had concentration levels of Fe 58.48mg/kg, Zn 39.44mg/kg, Mn 7.13mg/kg, Cu 9.40mg/kg, Cd 7.62mg/kg, Cr 9.82mg/kg, Pb 6.28mg/kg and Ni 17.62mg/kg. The result showed that the concentrations of heavy metals at River Benue and Shinko site soils are more polluted than the control site soil with Shinko site soil exhibiting high levels of heavy metals concentration. Comparative analysis of this study and International threshold values of heavy metals concentration levels in soil revealed that most of the parameters at Shinko site soil are elevated above the EU, USA and UK Standards. Future study is hereby recommended to focus on the impact of heavy metal concentration on irrigated vegetables as some may find their way into the food chain and cause public health hazards to consumers.
Keywords
Wastewater, Heavy Metal, Pollution, Physicochemical, Irrigation
To cite this article
Hong, Aliyu Haliru, Law, Puong Ling, Selaman, Onni Suhaiza, Heavy Metal Concentration Levels in Soil at Lake Geriyo Irrigation Site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis. Vol. 2, No. 2, 2014, pp. 106-111. doi: 10.11648/j.ijema.20140202.17
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