Heavy Metal Concentration Levels in Soil at Lake Geriyo Irrigation Site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria
International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis
Volume 2, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages: 106-111
Received: Apr. 10, 2014;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2014;
Published: Apr. 30, 2014
Views 3024 Downloads 202
Hong, Aliyu Haliru, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Modibbo Adama University of Technology, Yola, Nigeria
Law, Puong Ling, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
Selaman, Onni Suhaiza, Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia
The study assessed the physicochemical parameters and mean concentration levels of heavy metals in soil at two selected wastewater receiving sites and control site of Lake Geriyo irrigation project in order to determine the extent of heavy metal pollution due to wastewater irrigation using standard methods. The pH values at the River Benue, Shinko and control site soils were slightly acidic to neutral with mean value of 6.85, 5.75 and 7.0 respectively. Mean electrical conductivity values were 1.08µs/cm, 1.54µs/cm and 1.95µs/cm and organic matter levels are 0.75%, 2.11% and 3.5%. The textural classification of the soils revealed that the soils are predominantly sandy in nature with 56.4%, 55.6% and 50.4% sand, 20%, 16.0% and19% are clay, while 24.0%, 28.4% and 30.0% are silt. The mean concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) recorded in River Benue site soil are 86.89mg/kg, 74.38mg/kg,12.76mg/kg, 15.08mg/kg, 9.83mg/kg, 11.0mg/kg, 7.17mg/kg and 18.73mg/kg. Shinko site recorded concentration levels of 292.7mg/kg, 309.2mg/kg, 130.9mg/kg, 253.8mg/kg, 199.2mg/kg, 158.7mg/kg and 74.43mg/kg respectively, while the control site soil had concentration levels of Fe 58.48mg/kg, Zn 39.44mg/kg, Mn 7.13mg/kg, Cu 9.40mg/kg, Cd 7.62mg/kg, Cr 9.82mg/kg, Pb 6.28mg/kg and Ni 17.62mg/kg. The result showed that the concentrations of heavy metals at River Benue and Shinko site soils are more polluted than the control site soil with Shinko site soil exhibiting high levels of heavy metals concentration. Comparative analysis of this study and International threshold values of heavy metals concentration levels in soil revealed that most of the parameters at Shinko site soil are elevated above the EU, USA and UK Standards. Future study is hereby recommended to focus on the impact of heavy metal concentration on irrigated vegetables as some may find their way into the food chain and cause public health hazards to consumers.
Hong, Aliyu Haliru,
Law, Puong Ling,
Selaman, Onni Suhaiza,
Heavy Metal Concentration Levels in Soil at Lake Geriyo Irrigation Site, Yola, Adamawa State, North Eastern Nigeria, International Journal of Environmental Monitoring and Analysis.
Vol. 2, No. 2,
2014, pp. 106-111.
Adaipo, E.O, Kaizer, A.N. and Osakwe, S.A. Distribution of heavy metals in subsurface soils In Abraka and environs, southwestern Nigeria. Afr. Science, 2005, 6(1) 29 – 33
Amusan,A.A, Ige, D.V. and Olawale, R. Characteristics of soils and crop uptake of metals in Municipal waste dumpsites in Nigeria. J. Hum. Ecol. 2005, 17(3) 167 – 171
Ayeni,O.O, Ndakidemi P.A, Snyman R.G, Odendaal JP (2010). Chemical, biological and Physiological indicators of metal pollution in wetlands. Sci. Res. Essays, 5(15): 1938 – 1949.
Brady NC, Weil RR (2008). The Nature and properties of soils. Fourteenth Edition, Pearson Education Inc; Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, pp 65.
Bala, A. Mohammad, L.U, Pewan, S.B, Ahmed, Mohammad, M, Junaidu, A.U, Salihu, M.D, Magaji, A.A, Faleke, O.O, Agaie, Anzaku, S.A and Saulawa, M.A (2013). Determination of Lead Residue in Kidney, Liver, and Muscles of Slaughtered Cattle in Jos Central Abattoir, Plateau State, Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology. 7(6): Pp 48 - 51
Bai, J., Yany, Z., Cui, B., Gao, H., Ding, Q., (2010). Some heavy metals distribution in Wetland soil under different land use types along a typical plateau lake, China Soil Tillage Res. 106, 344 – 348.
Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment CCME (2003). Canadian Soil quality Guidelines for the protection of environmental and human health. Summary of a Protocol for the Derivation of Environmental and Human Health Soil Quality Guidelines. In: Canadian Environmental quality guidelines, Chapter 7, Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, Winnipeg.
Debackere M (1983). Environmental Pollution: The animal as a source indicator and Transmitter. In: Veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. 2nd Edition Westport, CT, AVI Publishing Co., Pp: 595 – 608.
Hankard PK, Svndsen C, Wright J, Weinberg C, Fishwick SK, Spurgeon DJ, Weeks JM (2004). Biological assessment of contaminated land using earthworm biomarkers in Support of chemical analysis Sci. Total Environ. 330:9- 20.
Jan, F.A., Ishaq, M., Khan, S., Ihsanullah, I., Ahmad, I., Shakirullah, M., (2010) A Comparative study of human health risks via consumption of food crops grown on Wastewater irrigated soil (Peshawar) and relatively clean water irrigated soil (Lower Dir). J. Hazard. Mat. 179, 612-621.
Kasha, M.D.A., Singh,B.R., Kawai, S., (2006). Mobility and distribution of cadmium, nickel And zinc in contaminated soil profile from Bangladesh. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 77, 187 – 198.
Khan, S., Rehman, S., Khan A.Z., Khan, M.A., Shah, M.T (2010), Soil and vegetable Enrichment with heavy metals from geological sources in Gilgit, northern Pakistan. J. Eco. And Environmental Safety 73: 1820 – 1827.
Kaur, S. and Mehra, P. Assessment of heavy metals in summer and winter sea-sons in River Yamuna segment flowing through Delhi, India. J. Environ. Ecol., 2012, 3(1) 1 - 17
National Population Commission (2006). Nigerian National Census conducted in the year 2006.
Nigerian Daily Trust Newspaper published on Wednesday 29th May 2013 accessed on www.Dailytrust.info
Niu, L., Yang, F., Xu, C., Yang, H., Liu, W. (2013). Status of metal accumulation in Farmland soils across China: From distribution to risk assessment. J. of Environ-mental Pollution 176: 55 – 62.
Oviasogie, P.O. and Omoruyi, E. (2007) Levels of heavy metals and physicochemical Properties of soil in a foam manufacturing industry. J. Chem. Soc. Nig, 32 (1):102 - 106
Osenwata, O.I. (2009). Effects of abattoir effluent on the physical and chemical properties of Soils. Environ. Monit. Assess., 1058 – 1068
Osakwe, S.A. (2013). Assessment of the effects of wood processing industries in selected Parts of Delta State, Nigeria, on the soils and vegetables in their vicinities. JOSRJ. Appl. Chem, 3(3): 22 – 33.
Sukreeyapongse, O., Holm, P.E., Srobel, B.W., Pa-nichsakpatana, S., Magid, J., Hansen, H.C.B., (2002). Ph depen-dence release of cadmium, copper, and lead from natural And sludge- amended soils. J. Environ. Quality 31, 1901 – 1909.
Solid Waste Audit Report SWAR, (2004)
USEPA, (1999). National primary drinking water regulation, United State Environmental Protection Agency.